Outside The Realm Of Philosophical, And Religious, Study

1165 WordsApr 19, 20175 Pages
Outside the realm of philosophical, and religious, study the words substance, and matter, are commonplace definer of a physical material out of which an object of permanence is made of. To the philosophers of the early modern period not only are these terms dissimilar, but also represented radically different ontological theories. The topic of substance is a pillar of philosophy an ontological analysis. The term substance “corresponds to the Greek ousia, which means ‘being’” (Howard, 2013). Substance, in the philosophical sense, became a generic term for anything thought to be the simplest component that constructed reality. Alterations in how philosophers defined substance changed as advancements in science and philosophy forced the…show more content…
An example would be someone’s name. The name Gabe is capable of existing on its own, and while it is likely this name is associated with another human it cannot be proven to be associated to any form or object. Secondary substance would be predictive of form and function; so human would be a secondary substance as a human has a definitive form (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy). This dualist presentation of substance allows for a deductive ontological proof capable of predicting primary substance. Aristotle believes, “Whenever one thing is predicated of another as of a subject, all things said of what is predicated will be said of the subject also.” He continues by presented the example that, “man is predicated of the individual man, and animal of man; so animal will be predicated of the individual man also—for the individual man is both a man and an animal.”(1b10, Categories). This chain of predictability allowed Aristotle to prove whether something has being or not. Interestingly, Aristotle leaves the binary substance classification for a more specific criterion to understand what substance is. Book Z of Metaphysics, addresses, “The question which was raised long ago, [and] is still and always will be, which always baffles us- ‘What is Being?’-is in other words ‘What is Substance?” (1028b3 Metaphysics Book Z). In order to answer this question Aristotle constructs 4 criterions, which must be
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