Oxygen and Oxidation

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Oxygen makes up only about 20% of the air, yet is the essential component for so many reactions. Without it fuels would not burn, iron would not rust and we would be unable to obtain energy from our food molecules through respiration. Indeed animal life on the planet did not evolve until a certain concentration of oxygen had built up in the atmosphere over 600 million years ago. The term oxidation has been in use for a long time to describe these and other reactions where oxygen is added. Oxidation, though, is only half of the story, as it is always accompanied by the opposite process reduction, which was originally thought of in terms of loss of oxygen. Later, however the terms widened to include a much broader
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acid oxide + water Oxyacid SO3 + H2O H2SO4 H2SO4 - sulfuric acid , NaNO3 - nitric acid Salts = They are formed by the combination of the hydroxides with the acids. hydroxide + acid salt + water NaOH * HCl NaCl + H2O CaCl2 calcium bromide, AlBr3 aluminum bromide

Hydroxides Naming Inorganic compounds Metallic hydride



In photosynthesis plants use light to form energy-rich compounds from water and carbon dioxide from the air. The decisive reactions occur in a reaction centre in the cell. The incoming light is caught in an antenna system and finds its way to a pair of chlorophyll molecules (see picture).

Within these molecules an electron is lifted to a higher energy level and is then transferred stepwise (follow the arrows) in a well-defined manner. It is important that the first leaps are very fast as otherwise the electron has time to return to the ground state. The Marcus model may explain the speed of these leaps. Finally the electron finds itself in a relatively stable state and still has enough energy to carry out the chemical work necessary for the organism.


Photos: http://www.chemistryland.com/ CHM130/IconChemicalReactions.jpg fcbunny.blogspot.com
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