PSY 451 Final: Psychology Theories

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1.) Bowlby's attachment theory stresses the importance of a secure attachment between an infant and his or her mother. If the caregiver, most likely the mother, makes the infant feel like he or she is well-taken care of, then the child learns that they can trust that the mother will always be around and will be there when or if the child ever needs someone to depend on. This is achieved in four distinct ways (Myers, 2009). The infant needs to have a secure base with the child. The child needs to know that if he or she becomes afraid, they will always have someone to go back to. This secure base also needs to be a safe haven where the child can be comforted upon feeling afraid. The child will also always try to stay near the caregiver in order to feel this safe haven, and any separation will cause distress because of being away from their secure base and safe haven. All of these factors come into play in the article "Ghosts in the nursery: A psychoanalytic approach to the problems of impaired infant-mother relationships" (Fraiberg et al 1975). By lacking these specific features, the infant going into the program were deprived of the necessary mechanisms that Bowlby asserted were essential to forming a well-rounded secure person. A resounding theory that was also present was an addition to Bowlby's attachment theory. This being the most important one in this study, Ainsworth's theory based on the Strange Situation was also apparent. When the children start reacting to the

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