PYC2602 NOTES

2972 Words May 7th, 2014 12 Pages
PYC2602 - Summary of A child's world - Papalia et al Cpts 1,2,3
THE STUDY OF CHILD DEVELOPMENT: BASIC CONCEPTS

THE STUDY OF CHILD DEVELOPMENT: THEN AND NOW
• Child Development: Scientific study of processes of change & stability in human children.
• Quantative change
Change in number/amount eg height, size of vocabulary, frequency of communication tends to be continuous
• Qualitative change
Change in kind, structure & organization
Discontinuous
Marked by the emergence of new phenomena that cannot be easily anticiped on the basis of earlier functioning, eg change from non-verbal to verbal communication
• Constancy
Most people show underlying stability in certain aspects

EARLY APPROACHES
• Baby Biographies - Forerunners of scientific
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• As a social category it remains very influential
• Categories of culture, ethnicity & race are fluid • Continuously shaped & redefined by social & political forces
• Ethnic Gloss • An overgeneralization that obscures/blurs variations • eg “black” “Hispanic”

The Historical Context
• Certain events, tied to a time & place, affect the course of children’s lives p16 NORMATIVE & NON-NORMATIVE INFLUENCES
• Normative • An event that occurs in a similar way for most people in a group
• Normative age-graded influences • Similar for people in an age group • Includes biological & social events
• Normative history-graded events • Significant events that shape the behavior & attitudes of a historical generation. • Group of people who experience the event at a formative time
• Age cohort • group of people born at about the same time
• Historical Generation • Can contain more than one cohort Cohorts are only part of a historical generation if they experience major, shaping historical events at a formative time in their lives.
• Nonnormative Influences: ○ Unusual events that impact an individual ○ Causes stress because they are unexpected ○ Typical events at an atypical time ○

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