Pain And Treatment Of Shoulder Pain

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The shoulder is one of the largest and most complex joints in the human body(1)The shoulder is not a single joint; it is an intricate arrangement of bones, muscles and ligaments, which provides strength and range of motion to the arm(1, 2). Shoulder pain accounts for between 16-21% of all musculoskeletal complaints(3, 4). There are many causes of shoulder pain such as: repetitive movements and overuse, trauma, and degenerative changes.

Shoulder pain and associated glenohumeral joint movement dysfunctions are common and debilitating conditions(5). The most frequently occurring problems include: shoulder impingement, rotator cuff-associated disorders, glenohumeral joint instability and adhesive capsulitis(5). Proper scapular motion and stability are considered to be crucial for the shoulder to function normally(6, 7). The scapular must serve as first, a stable base for glenohumeral function, second, a site of muscle attachment and third, a link for proximal-to-distal transfer of energy(2, 6, 8). Therefore abnormal functioning of the scapular will decrease normal shoulder function and predispose the shoulder to injury ((2, 5, 9). This essay aims to review the importance of scapular control during shoulder movements, and will discuss the evidence for scapular control to rehabilitate Glenohumeral joint injuries.

Anatomy of the shoulder
The shoulder complex is made up of four different joints. These are the articulations of the clavicle, the humerus, the

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