Pain Management

2233 Words Oct 18th, 2011 9 Pages
Path physiology Of Pain

Within this essay I plan to discuss: one current view of path physiology of pain, two ages appropriate pain tools for babies and toddlers and will also be exploring the nursing management of acute pain experience in babies and toddlers, including a strategy for ensuring the safe delivery of care. There have been a range of theories put forward in attempt to explain the path physiology of pain, one of these is the gate control theory (Fraser.L 1996) which states that a stimuli that enters the spinal cord can be manipulated through a process of opening and closing gates, which in turn determines if impulses proceed or not. The Gate
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In some cases this tool can be used for adults with some mild cognitive impairment.
Once admitted the child is usually shown the pain scale and told to point to the face that best describes their own pain, and / or using the words to describe the pain intensity and the number is recorded.
In effect Wong-baker FACES provides three scales in one: facial expressions, numbers and words. This broadens and makes it more generalised and understandable for children of different ethnicities and development.

Another tool which could be used on babies and toddlers is the FLACC scale (Merkel et al 1997) which was developed to provide a simple framework for assessment which provides reliable and objective ways of quantifying pain behaviours in children. This tool includes 5 categories of pain behavior, including facial expression, leg movement, and activity, cry and consol ability.

The FLACC assessment scale was developed to assess the acute pain of children during the post-operative period although its use is not restricted to that phase in the hospital setting.

FLACC facilities recall of these categories, each of which is scored either from 0-2 or 1-3 pending on the scale’s scoring system. After having regularly used the tool I found it a good interpreter, was reliable and valid, thus demonstrated by the changes in the pain scores from before and after analgesia

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