Papaya- Perennial Fruits

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Papaya are perennial fruits from the Caricaceae family which are used as food, cooking aid and traditional medicine. Papaya’s Latin name is Carica Papaya. Papaya is melon-like, oval to nearly round and elongated club-shaped. Papaya’s flesh is succulent and color ranging from yellow to red to orange. Papaya is cultivated in tropical and sub-tropical zones. The optimal growth condition for papaya are well-drained, well aerated and rich organic matter soil (pH 5.5 – 6.7), atmospheric temperature at 22-26 degree Celsius and an evenly distributed rainfall of 100 to 150cm. Papayas are usually grown from seeds. Germination occurs within 2 to 4 weeks after sowing. The primary reason for developing a genetic virus resistance for papaya is to counter the devastating effect of Papaya Ring Spot Virus on papaya. Papaya Ring Spot Virus is a deadly disease for papaya that inhibits the photosynthesis function of the plant and stunts growth leading to the death of the plant. Papaya Ring Spot Virus is a from potyvirus group and is an aphid-transmissible RNA virus that are infects papaya and can also be spread via human contact from infected to healthy plants. There is no chemical cure for papaya infected with Papaya Ring Spot Virus. In 1992, an outbreak of Papaya Ring Spot Virus spread throughout the papaya plantation of Hawaii. Papaya production dropped 40 percent in the course of five years.
In 1987, researchers at the University of Hawaii and Cornell University started researching on
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