Papers On Congestive Heart Failure

Decent Essays
Congestive heart failure (CHF) is a disorder of the cardiovascular system that occurs when the heart cannot sufficiently pump blood to meet the body’s metabolic and oxygen needs. Insufficient contractility of the heart will cause intravascular and interstitial volume overload and poor tissue perfusion. CHF is classified according to the side of the heart affected. The onset of CHF increases with age, as over the age of 50, 1% will develop CHF and 10% over the age of 80. An individual with CHF will experience a reduced exercise tolerance, quality of life and shortened life span and the prognosis depends on underlying cause and the individual’s response to treatment.
Left sided heart failure occurs as a result of ineffective left ventricular contraction. As the capability of the left ventricle fails, cardiac output decreases. Blood is not successfully pumped out and backs up into the left atrium and the into the lungs, causing pulmonary congestion, dyspnea, and activity
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Blood isn’t pumped efficiently through the right ventricle to the lungs. This causes blood to back up into the right atrium and in peripheral circulation. Weight gain, peripheral edema and engorgement of the kidney and other organs may occur. Right sided heart failure may be due to an acute right ventricular infarction, pulmonary hypertension, or a pulmonary embolus. The most common cause of right sided heart failure is left sided heart failure.
Clinical signs/symptoms of right sided heart failure include jugular vein distention, positive hepatojugular reflex, and hepatomegaly, all secondary to venous congestion. The patient may report right upper quadrant pain caused by liver engorgement, anorexia, fullness, and nausea, which may be due to congestion in the liver and intestines. The patient may experience weight gain, edema, and ascites due to sodium and water retention and excess fluid volume
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