Paragenetic Carcinogen Research Paper

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Epigenetic (paragenetic) carcinogens A substantial and growing number of carcinogens have structures, including that of their metabolites, that do not suggest a likely electrophilic reactant. These agents have been inactive or yielded equivocal results in short-term assays for genotoxicity (Upton et al, 1984). The formation of adducts in DNA by such carcinogens, which is the definitive evidence of DNA reactivity has not been found in cells of the target tissues using sensitive techniques (Williams, 1980; Whysner et al, 1998). In addition to the absence of DNA-reactivity, such carcinogens have been demonstrated to exert other primary cellular effects in their target tissues that could account for their carcinogenicity (Klaunig et al, 2000). Effects of this type include neoplasm promotion, cytotoxicity and increased cell proliferation. In the endocrine and immune systems, chemicals affecting function of these tissues can lead to tumor development (Capen, ….). These effects do not involve reaction with DNA and hence are epigenetic or paragenetic. It is important to note that carcinogens for which an effect that could be the basis of carcinogenicity has not been reasonably established, remain unclassified because absence of genotoxicity is not sufficient for…show more content…
That is, they lack the structural features illustrated in Fig. 2. Some well-established examples of epigenetic carcinogens are given in table 1. Epigenetic carcinogens are both synthetic (i.e., DDT) and naturally occurring (i.e., d-limonene). There are a few structural guides to potential epigenetic carcinogenicity (Williams et al, 2014). For example, polychlorinated cyclic compounds like DDT and polychlorinated biphenyls are likely to be liver enzyme inducers and promoters, leading to tumor development. Compounds with phenoxyacetic acid groups are likely to be PPARα agonists and liver
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