Parasympathetic And Sympathetic Nervous System Analysis

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Within vertebrates, heart rate is established by the sinoatrial (SA) node of the heart. This is achieved through a series of action potentials which drives excitation of cardiac muscles and establishes a rhythmic pace (Fritz et al., 2011). However, there are numerous factors that can affect the SA nodes impact on heart rate, which are primarily related to the autonomic nervous system.
The autonomic nervous system is responsible for the regulation of involuntary functions, and is broken up into the parasympathetic (PSNS) and sympathetic nervous systems (SNS). The SNS is most commonly referred to as an organism’s ‘fight or flight’ response, in which its activation is generally in response to stress, and results in a preparation
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