Parental Knowledge and Attitude Towards Antibiotic Usage and Resistance Among Children in Tetovo, Republic of Macedonia

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Antibiotics are the most frequently prescribed and misused drugs and there are reported concerns about the continuous indiscriminate and excessive use of antibiotics leading to emergence of antibiotic-resistant organisms (McLellan and Gray 2001; Krivoy et al. 2007). The use of antimicrobial agents, especially antibiotics has become a routine practice for the treatment of pediatric illnesses (Ghai and Paul 1988; Summers and Summers B 1986). According to Dowell et al. (1998); Nyquist et al. (1998); Nash et al. (2002) a substantial portion of prescribed antibiotics is considered nonessential, and such prescribing may be due to reasons related to: patients, parents or guardians, or the physicians.
Knowledge and beliefs are social cognitive
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Materials and Methods
Study design and population A cross-sectional survey was conducted from October 2013 to January 2014 among 500 parents using the validated questionnaire. Parents were attending most frequented pharmacies in Tetovo, Republic of Macedonia. The inclusion criteria were: (1) Adults aged 18 years and over; (2) Parents of children younger than 14 years; (3) aware of the term ‘Antibiotics’. Verbal consent was obtained from all study participants before administering the questionnaire. No personal identifiers were included in the form.
Questionnaire development and structure This self-administered questionnaire was developed by reviewing relevant literature and questionnaires used previously in similar studies (Panagakou et al. 2009; McNulty et al. 2007; Shehadeh et al. 2012; Ling et al. 2011; Alzoubi et al. 2013; Lim et al. 2012). In the first part of the questionnaire, information about the parents’ sex, age, education level, number of children aged 1 week and 14 years and experience of antibiotic use was noted. The second part was made up of ten knowledge statements covering aspects including: role of antibiotics, identification of antibiotics, dangers of using antibiotics (antibiotic resistance, allergy reaction) and antibiotic efficacy. Parents were asked to respond with either “Yes”, “No” or “Not Sure”. The third part contained ten attitude statements

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