Parkinson 's Disease And The Disease Of The Nervous System

703 WordsAug 28, 20153 Pages
Definition: “Parkinson’s disease is a chronic, progressive disease of the nervous system characterized by the cardinal features of rigidity, bradykinesia, tremor, and postural instability” (O’Sullivan and Schmitz, 2007). The condition can develop between age group 60 and 80 years and symptoms mostly appear around 60 years of age (O’Sullivan and Schmitz, 2007). Parkinson’s disease or PD is classified into idiopathic Parkinson’s disease, parkinsonism due to identifiable causes and parkinsonism in other neurodegenerative disorders. True Parkinson disease is classified into two subclinical groups. One group demonstrates postural instability and gait disturbances as dominant symptoms whereas the other group exhibits tremor as the prominent feature (O’Sullivan and Schmitz, 2007). Pathophysiology: Parkinson’s disease is affected by the degeneration of dopaminergic neurons which is responsible to produce dopamine. Dopaminergic neurons have their cell bodies in substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc) in basal ganglia (O’Sullivan and Schmitz, 2007). Basal ganglia are a collection of interconnected gray matter nuclear masses deep within the brain”. These gray matter masses are caudate, putamen, globus pallidus, subthalamic nucleus and the substantia nigra. Basal ganglia receive its input through striatum (O’Sullivan and Schmitz, 2007). Clinical Presentation: 1. Rigidity: Rigidity is defined as increased resistance to passive movement. Parkinson patients complain of “heaviness” or

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