Parkinson 's Disease And Treatment Of Muscle Control

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Introduction Parkinson’s disease is a highly pathological disease dated back for thousands of years. It is the most common movement disorder in our current society and the second most common neurodegenerative disorder. Parkinson’s disease was first studied by James Parkinson in 1817, which resulted in the identification of the common symptoms of the disease. (Parkinson’s Disease Information, 2014) This disease is characterized by a progressive loss of muscle control. This loss of muscle control leads to other complications such as trembling of the limbs and head when at rest. (Board, 2013) Parkinson’s disease is very common around the world, affecting about 5 million people total, while the prevalence rate in the United States is about…show more content…
(Checkoway, 2007) Parkinson’s disease is difficult to diagnose and many have been misdiagnosed as well. A neurologist who specializes in movement disorders would be the most adept person in making a correct diagnosis through many evaluation techniques. Some techniques to diagnose Parkinson’s include physical examinations, verbal surveys indicating any new medications or environmental exposures and various mental tests. (Clark, 2007) Pathophysiology Although Parkinson’s disease is a common neurological disease and researcher learn more and more about it each day, the disease is still considered largely idiopathic or of unknown cause. Although this is the case, it is widely known that Parkinson’s onset is due to the significant lack of a neurotransmitter named dopamine. (Clark, 2007) Dopamine is a substance that acts as a messenger between the corpus striatum and substania nigra to produce controlled and smooth movements. Most individuals who suffer from Parkinson’s show an immense lack of this substance, which explains the deteriorated control of movement. When there is a huge lack of dopamine or the amount is too low, the signals and communications between the substantia nigra and corpus striatum become inefficient, resulting in an impartment of ability to make smooth and controlled movements. The lower the levels of dopamine, the more symptoms begin to manifest. (Board, 2013) In addition
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