Parkinson 's Disease ( Pd )

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Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative debilitating movement disease which gets worse over time (Medscape, 2015). After much research and study no known cause has yet been determined and experts have hypothesized that it is a mix of inherited and environmental factors (Medscape, 2015). However, regardless of the unspecific cause, it is characterized by a significant loss in dopamine transportation to the basal ganglia which manifests itself in the three following physiologic signs: resting tremor, rigidity and bradykinesia (slow and reduced movement) (Mahan, Escott-Stump & Raymond, 2012). In North America PD is one of the most prevalent neurological disorders affecting relatively 1% of persons older than 65 years of age and within 5 years 66% of patients are disabled and by 10 years 80% are disabled (Mahan et al., 2012). PD increases in incidence with age, is not partial to socioeconomic status, is more common in whites than in Asian or Blacks and is predominately seen between the ages of 40 and 70 (Mahan et al., 2012). Etiology: Though not clearly elucidated the development of Parkinson’s disease is proposed to be a confluence of both genetic and environmental factors (Medscape. 2015). Endogenous toxins have also been implicated (Mahan et al., 2012). One of the first evidential genetic causes for PD was the discovery of the polymorphism SNCA gene (Medscape. 2015). The SNCA gene encodes the protein called the alpha-synuclein, which is found on the neuronal
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