There are three ways in which a drug can affect a neurotransmission, such its synthesis, storage, and release. An agonist drug that affects synthesis would monoamine oxidase inhibitors because they inhibit the breakdown of serotonin at the serotonin neural
Adderall acts on the neurotransmitters norepinephrine and dopamine via metabotropic receptors, on which it is a full agonist, blocking binding of the neurotransmitters to the receptors. A little more detail on this area would be ideal, because it was unclear to me whether there is a norepinephrine system that has the effects, or if Adderall is simply affected norepinephrine in various different areas.
So how do opioids work? Opioids attach themselves to specific proteins called opioid receptors. These opioid receptors are found throughout the body including the brain, spinal cord, and GI tract. When an opioid attaches to a receptor, it can reduce the perception of pain. Through this coupling with receptors, opioids
Albuterol has affinity to β 2 receptors and binds to them, causing a relaxation effect. β2 receptors are members of the adrenergic family of receptors and therefore its effects are caused by an interaction with G proteins. β
Alpha-blockers or alpha-adrenergic antagonist drugs help to decrease blood pressure and dilate blood vessels, allowing for blood to move more freely.Alpha-blockers accomplish this by either limiting or inhibiting the affects of norepinephrine, a stimulant hormone of the sympathetic nervous system. The term norepinephrine or noradrenaline works to constrict the muscles that line the interior of small veins and arteries in the body (Mayo Clinic, 2014). There are two types of alpha-receptors that are affected by norepinephrine, alpha-1 and alpha-2 receptors.Alpha-1 receptors are found throughout the body in: male reproductive organs, eyes, bladder, prostatic capsule, and more importantly blood vessels.Alpha-2 receptors exist in presynaptic nerve terminals. By blocking noradrenaline affects on alpha-1 receptors coronary arteries and veins will remain open, allowing for increased blood flow and in turn lowering blood pressure (Aschenbrenner & Venable, 2012).
Most opioid drugs will elicit these analgesic effects through the activation of the -opioid receptor (McDonald & Lambert, 2005). The currently available drugs that interact with opioid receptors include morphine, codeine and naloxone. A
Drugs that are depressants include Zyprexa, Seroquel and Haldol, are known as major tranquilizers or antipsychotics, they reduce the symptoms of mental illness. Some other depressants, such as Amytal, Numbutal and Seconal, are classed as barbiturate, which are used as sedatives and sleeping pills. Depressants have the effect of feelings of well-being, lowered inhibition, slowed thinking, slowed muscular activity,a distorted view of the world, or hallucinations Depressants act on the brain by affecting the neurotransmitter GABA. By increasing GABA and inhibit brain activity,they produce a drowsy or calming effect beneficial to those suffering from anxiety or sleep
Alzheimer’s Disease accounts for sixty to seventy percent of dementia cases. The disease starts slowly and gets worse over time. The most common symptoms are short term memory loss, trouble with language , moods swings
Though the antagonist effects by atypical antipsychotics on D2 receptors are identical to the typical antipsychotics, the second action neutralizes a large amount of EPS. Acting as an antagonist brings receptor activity back to baseline, which can have different effects depending on the receptor being targeted. The 5HT2A receptor regulates the release of dopamine into the striatum, when the activity level of this receptor is lowered it increases the release of dopamine which helps prevent the excessive inhibition of dopamine that effects the development of Parkinsonism. The additional dopamine in the striatum competes with the drug antagonists at binding sites preventing the antagonists from binding to all of the available receptors and reducing
Mechanism of action It acts by following ways • Benzodiazepine receptors are linked mainly to γ amino butyric acid (GABA) receptors, which sensitize benzodiazepine receptors to the neurotransmitter GABA, the most prominent inhibitory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system.
tissues. The effects include analgesia, drowsiness, changes in mood, respiratory depression, cough suppression, decreased gastrointestinal motility, nausea, vomiting, and alterations of the endocrine and autonomic nervous systems. Oxycodone receptor selectivity has not been extensively studied or characterized, and there appears to be a discrepancy between its weak affinity for opioid receptors and its potent
ii. Serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs) which you may have heard of as Pristiq, Cymbalta or Effexor, though they are a more recent addition to the antidepressants. Then we have,