Particle Swarm Optimization And Its Range Of Operation

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function, their numbers and intersection value determines accuracy of the tool and its range of operation. If the membership function covers poles values from 0 to 4 then the maximum value for pole is 4 and the least value is 0 and same thing happens for the constants. Each unit reduces an order of two to order of one. If a transfer function of higher order is needed to be reduced the operation is repeated several times. For example an order 8 to 2 function reduction will reduce the 8 poles into 4 poles then the 4 new poles into the final 2 poles. E. Particle Swarm Technique
Particle swarm optimization (PSO) is initialized with a group of random particles (solutions) and then searches for optima by updating generations. In every iteration, each particle is updated by following two "best" values. The first one is the best solution (fitness) each particle has achieved so far, this value is called Pbest. Another "best" value that is tracked by the particle swarm optimizer is the best value, obtained so far by any particle in the population. This best value is a global best and called Gbest. Each particle consists of: Data representing a possible solution, a velocity value indicating how much the Data can be changed, a personal best (Pbest) value indicating the closest the particle 's Data has ever come to the Target.
The particles ' data could be anything. In the flocking birds’ example above, the data would be the X, Y, Z coordinates of each bird. The individual
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