Past, Present and Future of Probation & Parole

2048 WordsJul 29, 20059 Pages
In order to study the past, present and future implications of the probation and parole system, I had to study the history of both. I will begin with the history of probation and then talk about the history of parole. I will also talk about how probation and parole work in the present and how and what will happen to both probation and parole in the future. Probation comes from the Latin verb probare which means to prove, to rest. Probation was first introduced to the United States in 1841 when a boot-maker by the name of John Augustus attended court to bail out a drunkard. This offender was released to the custody of Mr. Augustus making him the first true probation officer, the offender was told to return to court in three weeks…show more content…
He put this practice to work in 1876, after his appointment as superintendent of a youth reformatory. Once youth were admitted to the reformatory, they were placed into a classification. This classification was termed "second grade". In order to get to "first grade" an inmate had to have six months of good behavior If the inmate misbehaved they were sent to "third grade", from this grade the inmate would have to work his way back up. Once an inmate maintained good behavior at the first grade level, they were released. However, this release did not get them out of the system. Now the inmate had to report to a jurisdiction of authorities for six months. The report was done on the first day of the month. This report was made to a volunteer guardian, this is where parole officers came from. Reporting to the parole officer, the parolee had to provide accountings of his situation and conduct. The first state to adopt a parole system was New York in 1907. By 1927, there only three states that had not instituted a parole system, they were Florida, Mississippi, and Virginia. By 1942 all of the states, and the federal government had instituted such systems as were introduced by Maconochie, Crofton and Brockway. Today the use of probation is the most common form of sentencing in the criminal justice system. The probationer is placed under the supervision and care of probation staff. As long as the probationer maintains certain
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