Pathogenesis of Cervical Cancer

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According to the Centre for Health Protection of the Department of Health (2011), cervical cancer becomes the tenth commonest cancer in Hong Kong in 2008. Cervical cancer usually arises from sexual activity and human papillomavirus (HPV) (Bellentir, 2002). In this essay, Human papillomavirus would be further discussed. For example, the signal transport pathway of HPV 16 and HPV 18, which many scientists believe that they are closely related of causing cervical cancer, as well as the HPV vaccine and chemotherapy of cervical cancer, would be discussed.

HPV as the Main Cause of Cervical Cancer
Cervical cancer usually starts from the invasion of HPV to the epidermal
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PD-ECGF, VEGF) and negative (e.g thrombospondin-1, platelet factor-4) regulatory molecules (Wei, Kuo, Chen, Chou, Lai, Lee & Hsieh, 2003).

IL-6 Induce Angiogenesis and Tumor Growth
In the cervical cancer cell, VEGF and interleukin-6(IL-6) are commonly found. IL-6 is used to stimulate the immune response at first. But some research reveals that IL-6 accelerates the tumor growth and formation of micro vascular network of red blood cell. IL-6 is a kind of pro-inflammatory cytokine which secreted by T-cells and macrophages. IL-6 would activate VEGF-dependent angiogenesis process, thus blood vessel can be easily formed the cancer cell and enter circulatory system through lymph node or capillary. It promotes the development of cervical tumor through paracrine system or autocrine system. (Wei, Kuo & Chen et al.)

MMP-2 Activity of Degrading Collagen
According to Hardin, Bertoni and Kleinsmith (2011), when the growth factor binds to receptor protein which located on cell surface, it triggers the complex signal pathway, causes the division of endothelial cell and secretion of matrix metalloproteinase (MMPs). In the cervical cancer cell, MMP-2 and MMP-9 play the important roles on tumor invasion and metastasis. MMP-2 acts as a proteinase for degradation of collagen. Collagen is the main component of basal membrane and extracellular matrix, which supporting cells structure from outside. For inhibiting the MMP-2 activity, tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinase (TIMPs) are
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