The prototype of norovirus was identified in 1968 by electron microscopy as a cause of Gastroenteritis in Norwalk, Ohio. Human noroviruses are a major cause of Epidemic Gastroenteritis, and Epidemic Gastroenteritis is a major cause of foodborne illness. Outbreaks occur throughout the year, but it is most common in the winter. Causes 19-21 million cases of acute gastroenteritis, and contributes to 56,000-71,000 hospitalizations and 570-800 deaths, mostly among young children and older adults. Responsible for 58% of domestically-acquired foodborne illnesses, and about 50% of foodborne disease outbreaks due to known agents.
Person to person transmission can occur through poor hygiene habits or by handling human waste. Daycares and nursing homes are at a high risk for person to person transmission because of the high risk of handling infected feces. Family outbreaks are common, as are outbreaks among children at nurseries (Donnelly & Stentiford, 1997).
It can transfer from person to person through coughing and sneezing since it lives in the throat and nasal cavity. The droplets of the disease can live up to 2 hours in the air. The victim can touch a contaminated surface then touch their eyes, mouth, nose, or breathe in the air and become infected. The infected person can be contagious four days prior or four days after the measles rash appears. (Measles)
To prevent and control the infection and the measures that are to be taken by the facility to limit the spread of norovirus is that the organisation should have signs saying that there are some infected patients. Making sure of having a proper hand hygiene and wash the laundry thoroughly and make sure to disinfect the clothes. Usage of proper Personal Protection Equipment and sterilize the suspected
The outbreak started on January 11th when almost 550 people became sick. 542 of the report people who became sick ate from El Toro in Tacoma. The other 22 people were infected from chain restaurants near by. These people have gotten sick from a WA-area norovirus with the Tacoma area. Residents of separate households began to send reports to the health department of possible food poisoning on January 5. All of these residents have recently eaten at the Tacoma restaurant. Everyone who has come forward has been treated. There is no incite if anyone have died.
The virus has received its name from its birth in Norwalk Ohio. It was responsible for a short term outbreak of gastroenteritis occurring in the students of Bronson elementary school in November of 1968. It wasn’t until 1972 the virus was examined and received its name as the Norwalk virus. Since its known birth, there have been many outbreaks with similar symptoms reported. It is believed the virus may belong to the family Caliciviridae. The Norwalk virus is actually part of a group of single-stranded RNA, non-enveloped viruses. Once a person is infected with the virus it begins to copy itself within small intestines. The symptoms would develop between 12 and 48 hours and tend to last 1-3 days.
Very simple steps can be taken in order to prevent the virus, or stop it from spreading. Hand washing with hot soapy water is a must, especially if you believe you may have handled an infected surface. Most importantly, if you are not feeling well or believe you may have been infected, avoid preparing food for others and always make sure to stay home when you are sick to avoid giving it to others.
The virus has received its name from its birth in Norwalk Ohio. It was responsible for a short term outbreak of gastroenteritis occurring in the students of Bronson elementary school in November of 1968. It wasn’t until 1972 the virus was examined and received its name as the Norwalk virus. Since its known birth,
2 to 4 days after the incubation period, the infected person develops the initial symptoms of fever, chills, head and body aches, and vomit; then, the infected person becomes contagious. Afterward, a rash develops on and in the oral cavity area of the infected person causing the infected to become most contagious. After which, the rash develops to pustular rash, and the infected remains infectious. When the pustules form a crust and then a scab, the infected continue to be contagious. It is only after the scabs resolve and fall off, the infected is no longer infectious (World Health Organization,
Norovirus can also be recovered from water and water acts as a source of transmission of the disease, therefore, recreational water venues can be associated with the outbreak of norovirus disease.
This little package of mayhem consists of relatively few parts. A virus is simply a protein capsule called a capsid, sometimes surrounded by an envelope, containing a genome. The genome consists of nucleic acids arranged as DNA or less commonly, RNA. Dozens of variants of this fundamental arrangement exist with differences in the structure of the capsule and the arrangement of the genome. Small differences or changes in these components allow some viruses to continue to outmaneuver researchers, while millions of dollars are spent trying to understand and eliminate them.
The fastest communication of the virus to humans were reported in turkey. Simultaneously, 1.5 million birds were killed to contain the virus. The symptoms of such a disease that the temperature of your body dramatically starts to increase followed by a cough. Then the host (humans) starts to experience a difficulty in breathing and a severe pain in the stomach most of it ends with diarrhea – a disease happens when our digestive system are not able any more to absorb liquids and minerals. A further exposure to the virus can lead to shock, the respiratory system stop working completely, and the other vital organs like liver fail to function normally and eventually death may occur.
In addition, the incubation time of the virus is uncertain. Researchers think that it takes between one and five weeks after the initial contact with the virus before victims start showing symptoms of the illness. These early symptoms can vary significantly from person to person. While most people will feel fatigue, fever and muscle aches in the large muscle groups. Other may also experience chills, dizziness, and abdominal pains. A week later, infected people will begin to experience coughing and a shortness of breath as their lungs fill with fluid. It is important to note that most hanta virus victims became ill even though they did not see rodents or their dropping, and others have had a large amount of contact with both before they became sick (CDC.gov pg. 1). Because of the wide variety of symptoms, hanta virus has gone through several different names.