Pathology of Asthma and its Symptoms Essays

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The pathology of asthmatic symptoms is quite complex, and includes the effects of mast cells, eusinophils, T cell lymphocytes, mactrophages, neutrophila, and epithelial cells, which collectively lead to inflammation. Pathologic qualities of asthma include goblet cell hyperplasia leading to mucus overproduction, basement membrane thickening with subepithelial fibrosis, desquamation of the airway epithelium, bronchial smooth muscle hyperplasia, and cellular infiltration with lymphocytes, neutrophils, and eosinophils. Airflow obstruction is caused by the smooth muscle constriction around airways, leading to wheezing, coughing, and chest tightness. Exposure to allergens, irritants (eg smoke), and viral infections can also bronchoconstriction. As the asthma disease course progresses, inflammation becomes more prominent and edema, mucus overproduction, and smooth muscle hypertrophy and can lead to incomplete reversal in some patients (airway remodeling). These irreversible changes can include involvement of the small airways but generally do not involve the bronchioles. The sputum of asthmatics may contain Creola bodies (epithelial cell clusters), Charcot-Leiden crysals (eosinophils), and Curschmann’s spirals.

Triggers of asthma exacerbations in children include viral respiratory infections, such as human rhinovirus. Most of the HRV-A and HRV-B serotypes of the rhinovirus bind to respiratory epithelial cells, the primary site of inoculation and replication, via ICAM-1,…

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