Pathophysiology Of A Common Form Of Diabetes Mellitus

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Pathophysiology
Diabetes mellitus is broadly described as a chronic, metabolic disorder characterized by abnormalities metabolism resulting from defects in insulin secretion and action. Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a common form of diabetes mellitus that has emerged as one of the biggest health problems today affecting millions of people. The core defects that lead to T2DM are insulin resistance in muscle and adipose tissue, progressive β-cell dysfunction, and excessive hepatic glucose production (“Facts about type 2”, 2015). T2DM has been known to predominantly affect overweight or obese individuals although studies have made it clear that individuals vary are susceptibility. This paper seeks to explain the pathophysiology of T2DM
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However, the level of insulin is inappropriately low relative to their elevated blood glucose concentration. According to the American Diabetes Association (2015), type 2 diabetes has been classified as an illness due to the progressive insulin secretory defect on the background of insulin resistance. Insulin and glucagon are known to be the key mediators in balancing plasma glucose in a healthy body. Insulin is a hormone from the pancreatic β-cell that decreases plasma glucose by driving tissues uptake of glucose from the blood stream and suppressing hepatic glucose production. On the other hand, glucagon stimulates hepatic glucose production which then raises glucose level in the body. Amylin, a hormone, is co-secreted with insulin from the pancreatic β-cells that are responsible for modulating the rate of gastric emptying and suppresses the release of glucagon.
Course of Illness/Trajectory
A disease trajectory is defined as the course of an illness over time, plus the actions of clients, families and healthcare professionals to manage that course. In the assessment of disease trajectory, research spans all phases of the health/illness trajectory that include people who are healthy, critically ill, living with the chronic illness, and those at the end of life. Type II diabetes mellitus, when examined against the historical trajectory of changes in indigenous health, is a relatively new disease. According to Larsen (2009), it
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