Pathophysiology Of Dementia And Alzheimer's Disease

1570 Words7 Pages
Pathophysiology: Dementia Dementia, also known as Alzheimer’s disease (AD), is a progressive, chronic, and degenerative. 60% of dementia occurs in people over the age of 65. Dementia causes loss of judgment, memory, change in personality, and visuospatial perception. Severe cognitive impairment can occur over time, as well as physical deterioration and death. The brain changes in size and weight as a person ages. There is also a narrowing of the gyri, enlargement of the ventricles, and widening of the cerebral sulci. In AD, these changes are accelerated, causing issues such as atrophy of the cerebral cortex and loss of cortical neurons. In addition, the pre-central gyrus of the frontal lobe, superior temporal gyrus, hippocampus, and substantia nigra are all affected. Changes in neurofibrillary tangles (tangled masses of fibrous tissue throughout the neurons) , amyloid-rich senile or neuritic plague (degenerating nerve terminals in the hippocampus which contain proteins that form neurotoxic plague in the brain) and granulovascular degeneration can all occur as well. Though the exact cause of AD is unknown, possible factors of cognitive impairment in older adults include neurologic, cardiovascular, pulmonary, metabolic, psychological, environmental causes, nutritional deficiencies, and drug toxicity. Signs & Symptoms: Alzheimer Disease is staged based on symptoms. Early (Mild) or Stage I can last up to 4 years. Middle (Moderate) or Stage II can last 2-3
Open Document