This literature review briefly examines the scholarly journal articles and research cited above. The aim of these articles were to identify the effective intervention methods used for the treatment of co-occurring posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and substance use disorders (SUD). Although there is much evidence to support the high rate of individuals who experience symptoms of or are diagnosed with both PTSD and a SUD, there is little known about the comorbidity of these two disorders. There is also little research focused on specific populations, such as veterans, who experience a high rate of SUD diagnoses generally associated with combat PTSD. The literature also describes possible rationale for the high rate of
The American Psychiatric Association (APA) added post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) to their third edition of its Diagnostic and Statistical Manual In 1980. PSTD was popularized as an adversity but since then the psychiatric theory and practice gap has been filled. PTSD was considered a traumatic etiological (individual) occurrence as oppose to a hereditary occurrence (Friedman, 2015). Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) is a health psychology topic that needs to be discussed more than it is. PTSD stems from an event that has taken place in a person’s life such as an act of violence, car accident, or a natural disaster. Experiencing such events as these can have a deep impact on a person’s life. These events can be identified as an isolated
Sullivan, Gregory. "Vetting PTSD." Nature Medicine 17.9 (2011): 1031. Health Reference Center Academic. Web. 21 Apr.
The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fifth edition (DSM-5) describes PTSD as a series of persistent symptoms lasting over six months, including the re-experiencing of a traumatic event, avoidance of places or people related with the trauma, a numbed general responsiveness and an increased arousal that cannot be explained by substance use or other co-occurring disorders (American Psychiatric Association [APA], 2015). Although symptoms cannot be explained by substance use alone, many trauma survivors use substances to escape PTSD symptoms.
Although posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is sometimes considered to be a relatively new diagnosis, as the name first appeared in 1980, the concept of the disorder has a very long history. That history has often been linked to the history of war, but the disorder has also been frequently described in civilian settings involving natural disasters, mass catastrophes, and serious accidental injuries. The diagnosis first appeared in the official nomenclature when Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM)-I was published in 1952 under the name gross stress reaction. It was omitted, however, in the next edition in 1968, after a long
Substance abuse among our veterans is much greater than our civilian populations. This is largely caused by post-traumatic stress disorder, associated from combat, and who have endured multiple deployments. In most cases, veterans who have turned to alcohol or drugs have a dual diagnosis. They not only have a problem with alcohol or drugs, but they also suffer from a mental or mood disorder that has a major impact on these issues. In most cases the mood disorder is post-traumatic disorder(PTSD), which results from being in combat. According to
Treatment for co-ocurring disorders fall under the outpatient spectrum for addiction rehabilitation, however, it is an essential and successful form of treatment specifically for veterans. For many civilians who have not been to combat it is difficult to comprehend the toxic combination of pride, anger, duty, anguish and anxiety many veterans feel after their time in the service. Consequently, adjusting back to civilian life is a difficult task to accomplish; while some veterans sustain only minor physical and psychological wounds from combat, others aren’t as lucky. As mentioned above, for veterans, PTSD is considered a mental health condition caused by the traumatic events experienced in wartime. Thus often causing veterans to drugs or alcohol to self-medicate. If left unaddressed, PTSD and substance abuse in veterans can be
Article Citation: Bernhardt, A. (2009). Rising to the challenge of treating OEF/OIF veterans with co‐occurring PTSD and substance abuse. Smith College Studies in Social Work, 79(3-4), 344-367.
PTSD among combat veterans can be very complex for it has many different variables that can play a part in the severity and duration. The different variables can be found in prewar, warzone, and
(Rosenthal, J. Z., Grosswald, S., Ross, R., & Rosenthal, N. 2011) Veterans presenting with symptoms of PTSD will often engage in behaviors which can be dangerous for themselves, their families and socity. Lack of effective treatment can place the veteran at increased risk for drug and alcohol abuse or dependence, suicide ideations or attemps, and bouts violence toward others. (National Center for PTSD, 2010) PTSD can occur anytime anytime one has have been through the experience of a traumatic event. PTSD has been referred to by many names in past years such as post-combat disorders, shell shock, post-traumatic stress disorder, disordered or heavy heart, and war neurosis. In DSM-I PTSD was referred to as ‘‘gross stress reaction’’ this was the name of the diagnoises given to those individuals who had suffered combat exposure, and their minds had become psychologically altered. It was very helpful to have a name to the sympotms of military or civilian individual that had been exposed to combat exposure, ex-prisoners of war, and rape victims. This term had also been helpful in diagnosing Nazi Holocaust
At least 50% of all adults and children are exposed to a psychologically traumatic event (such as a life-threatening assault or accident, humanmade or natural disaster, or war). As many as 67% of trauma survivors experience lasting psychosocial impairment, including post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD); panic, phobic, or generalized anxiety disorders; depression; or substance abuse.(Van der Kolk, et al, 1994) Symptoms of PTSD include persistent involuntary re-experiencing of traumatic distress, emotional numbing and detachment from other people, and hyperarousal (irritability, insomnia, fearfulness, nervous agitation). PTSD is linked to structural neurochemical changes in the central nervous system which may have a direct
Many of the veterans experience a multitude of issues linked to PTSD. Some of these can include depression, employment, increase demands on healthcare services, and social impairment. Physical health issues associated with PTSD can include respiratory, hypertension, skin, hearing and deafness, stomach, urinary and even musculoskeletal complications (Benyamini and Solomon, 2005:1271; Boscarino, 2006:253-254; Hoge, et al., 2006:1023; O’Toole and Catts, 2008:34). A number of soldiers in these studies reported an increase in substance abuse. This misuse of substances is either through alcohol, cigarettes, prescription medications, or other drugs (Benyamini and Solomon, 2005:1268; Browne et al., 2008:628; Hanwella, et al., 2014:4-6; Smith, et
This disorder leads the veterans to substance abuse to calm their nerves and help them feel more at ease. The substance abuse, in turn, leads the veterans to be more hostile, aggressive, and violent to those people around them, especially their families. A study found in The American Journal of Psychiatry revealed, "Increases in alcohol and substance abuse closely paralleled the increase in PTSD symptoms seen in the period during and immediately after the war. Patients reported that alcohol, heroin, marijuana, opiates, and benzodiazepines (but not cocaine) were beneficial for their symptoms of
Although controversial when first introduced, the PTSD diagnosis has filled an important hole in psychiatric theory and practice when dealing with this plethora of symptoms. Throughout history the significant change brought upon by the theorization of the PTSD concept was the stipulation that the origination agent was outside the individual rather than an inborn weakness. The key to understanding the scientific theorem and clinical determination of PTSD is the concept of
Women with substance abuse issues tend to pose unique differences when compared to their male counterparts. They are more likely to exhibit PTSD. This is especially true for those women who have experienced physical and/or sexual abuse with high rates of repeated trauma (Najavits et al, 1997).