Pathophysiology Of The Following Signs And Symptoms

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7. Explain the pathophysiology of the following signs and symptoms: a. Polyuria: is more than normal or increased urine output. Water homeostasis is controlled by a complex balance of water intake, renal perfusion, glomerular filtration and tubular reabsorption of solutes, and reabsorption of water from the renal collecting ducts. When intake of water increases, blood volume rises and blood osmolality falls, lowering the release of ADH (arginine vasopressin, which promotes water reabsorption) in the hypothalamic pituitary system. With the lowering of ADH there is a rise in urine volume, which allows blood osmolality to return to normal. Urine containing large amounts of glucose has high osmotic pressure, which attracts water, so that urine output rises (osmotic diuresis). b. Polydipsia: increased fluid intake. It is due to high blood glucose that raises the osmolality of blood and makes it more concentrated. With frequent urination, increase water intake becomes necessary. Severe dehydration and electrolyte imbalance can occur. Diabetes may cause blood glucose levels to rise which can lead to increased glucose levels that cause one’s body to pull fluid from cells into the bloodstream and deliver the increased load to the kidneys. This can cause one’s kidneys to over work and produce more urine than normal. c. Polyphagia: increased food intake is due to loss or excess glucose in urine that leads the body to crave for more glucose. As calories are lost in urine, increased

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