Essay about Pathophysiology of a Myocardial Infarction

2488 Words Jul 18th, 2010 10 Pages
For the purpose of this assignment the author will discuss the pathophysiology of a myocardial infarction and will give an in-depth discussion of one central aspect of care and in this assignment the author has chosen the management of anxiety. Due to word restrictions a brief mention will be given to the other aspects of care. Ischaemia is a term which is used to describe the deficiency in blood supply to any part of the body. In ischaemic heart disease there is a deficiency in the blood supply to the heart muscle which can be caused by an obstruction to, or even a narrowing of the coronary arteries. This in turn reduces the supply of nutrients and oxygen to the heart muscle. Without an optimum oxygen supply the heart muscle is unable to …show more content…
Some infarctions are subendocardial which affects only the inner third to one half of the heart muscle. Most infarctions however are transmural which means that all three layers of the heart are involved and it usually occurs in the left ventricle.(Saleh et al 2006)
In left-sided congestive heart failure the left ventricle weakens and cannot empty which results in decreased cardiac output to the system which in turn leads to pressure elevation in the left atrium and pulmonary vessels and capillaries, the ensuing decreased renal blood flow stimulates rennin-angiotensin and aldosterone secretion the resulting high pressure in the pulmonary capillaries leads to the exudation of fluid into the pulmonary interstitial tissue and alveoli which causes pulmonary congestion or edema. In right-sided congestive heart failure the right ventricle weakens and cannot empty which also results in decreased cardiac output and the secretion of rennin-angiotensin and aldosterone however, this leads to a backup of blood into the systemic circulation via the venae cavae. The increased venous pressure results in edema in the legs, liver and abdominal organs. (Tsai 2005)
The onset of symptoms in myocardial infarction are usually gradual, over a period of several minutes and are rarely instantaneous. Classical symptoms of an acute myocardial infarction include sudden chest pain (some clients may describe this…