Patterns of Management Theory

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The purpose of this article is to identify the various schools of management theory, indicate the source of the differences, and to provide some suggestions for disentangling the management theory jungle. Koontz describes six schools of management theory as follows.
1. The Management Process School
The management process school views management as a process of getting things done with people working in organized groups. Fathered by Henri Fayol, this school views management theory as a way of organizing experience for practice, research and teaching. It begins by defining the functions of management.
2. The Empirical School
The empirical school views management theory as a study of experience. Koontz mentions
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For example, mathematics, operations research, accounting, economic theory, sociometry, and psychology are significant tools of management, but they are not part of the content of the field.
2. Integration of Management and other Disciplines
3. The Clarification of Management Semantics
4. Willingness to Distill and Test Fundamentals

Criteria to Remember in Clarifying Management Theory
1. Management theory should deal with a manageable area of knowledge and inquiry.
2. Management theory should be useful in improving practice.
3. Management theory should not be lost in semantics, jargon not understandable to the practitioner.
4. Management theory should provide direction and efficiency to research and teaching.
5. Management theory must recognize that it is a part of a larger universe of knowledge and theory.

Koontz clarified the jungle-like nature of management theory, first in the
Journal of the Academy of Management, then in Harvard Business Review.^
Business Week magazine noted it for the executive reader. Waino Suojauen,
Lyndall Urwick, and many others have leaped into the fray. William Frederick suggests that in ten years we will see from this jungle emerge a general theory akin to Keynes General Theory of Employment Interest and Money in the field of economics.^
There are many indications that a serious
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