Melting points are indicative of identifying an unknown product and the level of impurity the product contains. In this case, the possible identity of the product based on its melting points are determined by comparing the obtained melting points of the product to the melting points of the five possible products. Two mini capillaries, containing the product only, were used to determine the product’s melting point. For one mini capillary, the temperature range was 132.1-134.2℃, and the product’s melting point for the second minicapillary ranged from 135.1-137.5℃. In addition, melting points were obtained with the product mixed with meso-hydrobenzoin. The temperature range was 135.0-136.0℃ and 135.0-137.5℃. Although the recorded melting point values fall into the racemic range, but the results still indicate that the product is a meso-hydrobenzoin. The melting point values for the product mixed with the meso-hydrobenzoin standard explains that it is unlikely that the product is racemic. The melting point values were two degrees from each other due to the meso-hydrobenzoin standard making
Next, 1mL plus an additional 10 drops of 10% sodium carbonate was added drop-wise to the beaker until the solution reached a pH of 8. The precipitate formed (crude benzocaine product) was collected via vacuum filtration and washed with water during the transfer into the Hirsch funnel. The product was allowed to dry for one week after which the mass and melting point of the crystals were measured.
2-naphthol has a molecular weight of 144.17 g/mol, with a density of 1.22 g/cm3. The melting point of 2-naphthol is in the range of 121 to 123 °C. The stock solution of 2-naphthol has a concentration of 1.9844E-3 M.
In this lab, liquid-liquid extraction was performed to isolate a mixture of benzocaine and benzoic acid. 2.0107 grams of the mixture was first weighed out for the trials. When HCl was added to the mixture for the first acid extraction of benzocaine, an emulsion formed during inversion and venting that prevented a defined separation of the two layers. 8 mL of water was therefore added before continuing the extraction. The addition of NaOH then turned the top aqueous layer basic, indicated by the pH strips that turned blue when tested. A vacuum filtration isolated 0.29 grams of benzocaine and a MelTemp apparatus measured the crystal’s melting point ranges to be 85.1C-87.4C. For the base extraction of benzoic acid, the aqueous layers were retrieved
The objectives in this laboratory were to be able to calculate the freezing point depression among three trials of unknowns, be able to correctly measure the freezing points of p-xylene, and to be able to calculate the molar masses of the unknowns by found freezing point depression values. This was done to be able to understand and apply a concept names supercooling. Supercooling is when a liquid is put far under its original freezing point and remains a liquid or gas. This happens when a substance is cooled so quickly that it’s easier for it to stay a liquid than to crystalize, until it reached its nucleation point and begins to heat up returning to its freezing point (image 4). The supercooling of p-xylene was observed in three
From the calculations in the data analysis, the actual percent composition of magnesium is 65.3% ± 1.7%, the actual percent composition of oxygen is 34.7% ±2.5%. The purpose of this lab was achieved as the percent composition of the magnesium oxide was determined and was used to test the law of definite proportions. The hypothesis was mostly correct as the results demonstrated that the actual percent composition was only slightly greater/lesser than the hypothesized percent composition. However, the actual percent composition may have been affected by several limitations during this investigation.
2. (5 pts) List and explain the names and affiliations of the various characters/stakeholders in this story – I’m looking for us to use the story to map out the complexities that are generally associated with solving public health puzzles – the stakeholders you list and explain here should apply to many of the cases we consider going forward.
The experiments conducted for this lab report focused on water contamination and filtration. Experiment 1 was effects of groundwater contamination. Oil, vinegar, and laundry detergent were added to clean water with no means of filtration. The clean water was found to be contaminated. A filtration system consisting of cheesecloth and 60 ml of soil was created and the contaminated samples were filtered through it. The soil and cheese cloth did not affectively filter the contaminants. Experiment 2 focused on
Discussion: As seen in the melting point determination, the average melting point range of the product was 172.2-185.3ºC. The melting points of the possible products are listed as 101ºC for o-methoxybenzoic acid, 110ºC for m- methoxybenzoic acid, and 185ºC for p- methoxybenzoic acid. As the melting point of the sample
The objectives of this lab are, as follows; to understand what occurs at the molecular level when a substance melts; to understand the primary purpose of melting point data; to demonstrate the technique for obtaining the melting point of an organic substance; and to explain the effect of impurities on the melting point of a substance. Through the experimentation of three substances, tetracosane, 1-tetradecanol and a mixture of the two, observations can be made in reference to melting point concerning polarity, molecular weight and purity of the substance. When comparing the two substances, it is evident that heavy molecule weight of tetracosane allowed
A positive control is when you test your experiment against something where you know what the effects will be. a negative control would be when you test the experiment with something you know will have no effect.
The purpose of this experiment is to separate a mixture of salicylic acid and naphthalene using extraction, recrystallization and sublimation techniques. Extraction is the separation of compounds from a mixture based on their relative solubilities in different solvents. Sublimation is the process of separation by which a substance transitions from the solid phase into the gas phase, skipping the liquid phase. Recrystallization involves dissolving a substance in an appropriate solvent then crystallizing it as it cools (impurities remain in solution). The melting points of the substances were determined in order to assess their purity and the percent recovery of pure naphthalene and salicylic acid were calculated. According to the results, the melting point of pure naphthalene was between 86°C -89°C range, whereas for pure salicylic acid was 167°C -170°C. Both determined melting points were higher compared to the literature value of 80.26°C and 158.6°C for pure naphthalene and salicylic acid respectively. Lastly, the percent recovery for pure naphthalene and salicylic acid were 17.7% and 71.2% accordingly.
Recrystallization was done to remove impurities from the sample. The percent recovery of benzoic acid during recrystallization is 23.02%. The difference between the pure and impure samples was observed by comparison of melting points. It was found that impure sample had a lower and wider melting point range of 120.1-122.2 (C). The pure sample melting point range was 121.3-122.5 (C). These ranges helped determine purity by comparing the known melting point of pure benzoic acid.
To apply thermal analysis to the two-component system, naphthalene-biphenyl at atmospheric temperature. The analysis will be represented by a solid-liquid phase diagram (freezing point diagram).