Peripheral Artery Disease Is A Prevalent Condition That Greatly Increases Risk Of Death From Myocardial Infarction

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Peripheral artery disease is a prevalent condition that greatly increases risk of death from myocardial infarction or stroke. In the clinic, PAD will most often present itself as intermittent claudication. It is important to understand this disease’s symptoms, progression, risk factors, and pharmacological treatment options to provide patients with individualized, high-quality physical therapy.
Peripheral artery disease is caused by the narrowing and hardening of blood vessels that supply oxygen and nutrients to the periphery of the body. Arterial occlusion from atherosclerosis could be found in many locations throughout the body; however, the lower extremities are affected more often than the upper extremities.1
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Tobacco use is an important contributor to PAD, as smoking promotes atherosclerotic changes in the endothelium of blood vessels. Almost 90% of patients diagnosed with PAD are current or former smokers; smokers’ risk of PAD is positively correlated with the number of cigarettes they smoked each day, and the number of years they smoked for.1
Diabetes also increases the risk of PAD by causing dysfunction of the smooth muscle and endothelium of the arteries. The risk of developing PAD is positively correlated with the duration and severity of the patient’s diabetes. Dyslipidemia accelerates the progression of PAD, and hypertension can increase the incidence of intermittent claudication.1
Clinical Manifestations:
The symptoms of Peripheral Artery Disease are classified into four different stages.
In stage one, the patient is asymptomatic; approximately 50% of individuals with PAD are asymptomatic.4 They will not have pain with exercises, however, their distal lower
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