Essay about Personal Counseling: Theory of Change

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Over the last 100 years, the underpinning concepts in the fields of psychology and counseling were wrought. Within this period, these concepts have transformed and evolved from somewhat crude conceptions of the psyche toward more holistic interventions and approaches. As the profession continues to move forward, adaptations of the original theorists regarding the nature of man and the development of personality continue to emerge. These adaptations, along with the integration of new concepts and ideas, continue to contribute to the field. The author describes his view of man and human nature, personality development, and explores potential implications for counseling. Nature of Man The work of Sigmund Freud continues to influence…show more content…
It does, however, imply that at the center of all of us is a genetic code of animalistic survival. Regardless of how civilized we become, what moral guidelines we breed, or how giving we are to the less fortunate, we all at the core will do what is necessary to survive. This includes actions that would be considered antisocial, if not actions directly against others. Personality Theory Freud proposed the psychological structure of personality to include three systems called the id, the ego, and the superego. At birth, the id is the original system of personality and is ruled by the pleasure principle. It is driven towards satisfying instinctual needs. The ego can be described as a mediator between ones instincts and their surrounding environment. The ego is ruled by the reality principle, using realistic and logical thinking to formulate action plans for satisfying needs. The superego includes a person’s moral code and strives for perfection, not pleasure. Psychic energy is distributed between these three systems creating dynamics of personality. This psychic energy is what determines behavior (Day, 2008). Modern man has other obligations to fulfill other than his own, as society also makes demands of each of us. This causes the person to attempt to further suppress the id from public view. Most
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