Personal Influence on Consumer Behaviour Priya

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A reference group is a group with whom an individual identifies to the point where the group dictates a standard of behavior.
Reference groups exert tremendous influence on consumers’ hospitality and tourism purchase decisions. Every individual is influenced directly and indirectly. Marketing research has identified three types of reference groups: comparative, status, and normative.
First, individual consumers use reference groups to compare their own feelings and thoughts with those of others. For example, an individual may have gone to dinner at a restaurant and felt that the food and service were excellent.
Before these perceptions are internalized, however, a reference group is often consulted to validate the
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Figure 3.1 illustrates the role of needs in consumer behavior. Simply stated, needs lead to motivation, which leads to behavioral intentions, which ultimately lead to observable behavior. Following behavior, feedback affects and may change a consumer’s motivation. To continue our earlier example, once the consumer had been to a particular restaurant, if the meal was satisfying and met prior expectations, then the feedback would be favorable and the consumer would likely plan to return to this particular restaurant. If, however, the meal was not satisfying or did not meet prior expectations, then the individual’s negative feelings would likely result in not returning to this particular restaurant. It is important to remember that successful marketing is about identifying and then meeting or exceeding the expectations of consumers.
In the mid-1900s, Abraham Maslow, an American psychologist, developed a model identifying five classes of needs; today the model remains one of the influential cornerstones of consumer behavior. As shown in Figure 3.2,
Maslow’s hierarchy of needs is arranged in the following order, from the lowest to highest level: physiological needs, safety needs, social and belonging needs, esteem needs, and self-actualization needs.2 Individuals are believed to satisfy the lower-level needs before they move to the higher-level needs.

Maslow’s hierarchy of needs.

PHYSIOLOGICAL NEEDS. Physiological needs

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