Thesis: Female Genital Circumcision is a cultural procedure that is performed on young girls for a variety of reasons. Members of this culture chose to continue these traditions because they believe they will gain sociological, health and marriage benefits for their daughters, ensuring these young girls a better future is mandatory.
Too, as a mother, I struggled much with the decision on whether to circumcise my son. Though I was well read on the matter, the idea of inflicting pain to this little wonder I had spent nine-months protecting appeared nearly counterproductive and in some dark spaces of my mind, plain cruel. However, my husband steady inflection of “this must be done” kept a fair amount of fear from overwhelming me. He certainly voiced more opinions on the subject than me, and personally, my argument was largely overlooked due to my lacking the appropriate appendage to relate. Looking back now, I find my concerns had more to do with medical implications of the procedure, while my husband’s foundations for circumcision spawned from values. Our text even boasts
Circumcision is a procedure where the foreskin of the male penis is removed, most commonly in newborns. Some studies have found there are some potential benefits to having newborn males circumcised as laid out in the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) Circumcision Policy Statement released in 1999. A few potential benefits include the reduced risk of UTI, HIV and other STDs, and some penile cancers. In fact, more recently, the AAP has released a newer statement in 2012 saying these benefits now outweigh the risks and can justify access to the procedure should families choose to do so. However, there are many other studies that show the risks of having newborn males circumcised. These include reduced penile sensitivity, later in life erectile disfunction, unimaginable pain, and ethical issues. Due to this sensitive topic, parents of newborn males should be given correct and unbiased information about the risks and benefits of circumcising their child. A physician should never recommend the procedure, but instead provide only the facts.
Darby (2015) discussed the harm versus the benefits of a neonatal circumcision. For centuries, it has been believed that the removal of the penis foreskin offer great medical and hygienic benefits while yielding minimal risks. However, little attention has been paid to these minimal risks. Darby (2015) discussed the risks of not being circumcise as well as the risks of being circumcised. Darby (2015) also discussed the religious and sociocultural beliefs associated with neonatal circumcision.. However, Darby (2016) stated that despite these reasons, some men grow up and resent their condition and would not have chosen circumcision for them.
Women who perform the circumcisions to continue tradition outside of Africa are known as “excisers”. People who practice it think its barbaric so they choose to hide what they do. Reports from the United Nations, and other public health groups say wealthy immigrants have paid Western physicians in Europe and the United States to circumcise their daughters.While most experts agree U.S. courts would likely consider female circumcision child abuse, no one has tested that law. Opponents say explicit legislation banning the practice is long overdue. There is little research on the incidence of female circumcision in the United States and just a few informal surveys of circumcised women living there. Some doctors in the United states have started to “deinfibulate” which undoes the procedure of FC/GM to expose the tissues under the scars. With this procedure women will be able to have natural births and be able to urinate and mensturate with out pain
Let’s say breakfast cereal was invented to prevent you from masturbating and keep men pure and sane. In Jewish, Islamic, and Christian practices a newborn boy must be circumcised in order to be accepted by their god. Others have formed organizations fighting circumcision -- a surgery that removes the foreskin covering the glans of the penis -- because it is viewed as inhumane and extremely traumatic to a newborn boy. Thankfully, people have found scientific proof which provide the public with medical reasons and facts as to why circumcision might or might not be necessary in a male’s life. In American Culture, circumcision has been a medically suggested practice in order to prevent penile cancer, urinary-tract infections(UTIs) and a lower risk of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). Not to mention the astounding amount of numbers that show over 2.1 million males in America that have been circumcised since 2008 at some point in their lives. Despite what side a parent or adult male may side on as far as getting a circumcision research is important.
Male circumcision is done by removing the foreskin around the head of the penis and is usually done 1-2 days after birth. According to the Centers for Disease Control, “Male circumcision reduces the risk that a man will acquire HIV from an infected female partner, and also lowers the risk of other STDs, penile cancer, and infant urinary tract infection. For female partners, male circumcision reduces the risk of cervical cancer, genital ulceration, bacterial vaginosis, trichomoniasis, and HPV. Although male circumcision has risks including pain, bleeding, and infection, more serious complications are rare”(1). Another risk includes, decrease in sensitivity. In other words, there are both benefits and risks to male circumcision. The cause of male circumcision is health benefits and religious reasons.
Male circumcision is performed for either medical or religious purposes. There is a significant amount of controversy regarding to the benefits and complications of male circumcision, therefore, it is a common research topic in both pediatrics, urology, ethics, and public health. Many studies have found multiple benefits in circumcision and as of today, the World Health Organization finds circumcision as one of the preventive methods against HIV/AIDS infection and transmission in developing countries (WHO, 2014). However, circumcision is not totally safe procedure and several acute and chronic risks are expected.
Female genital mutilation (FGM) also known as female circumcision is a tradition passed down from generation to generation occurring all around the world affecting millions of women and young girls. FGM is controversial matter most prevalent in Africa (Ahanonu and Victor, 2014). To this day it’s estimated that about 28 African countries still practice this ritual including Nigeria (Ahanonu and Victor, 2014). In the past twenty years there has been a worldwide increased interest in FGM due to its multiplicity and lifelong effects. Some people believe FGM violates basic human rights where others believe this ritual is required to increase their chances of marriageability and that this practice is a transition from adolescents into adulthood
There is a 1-4% chance that something could go wrong due to circumcision. Pain and distress is common to infants undergoing the procedure, but safe and effective pain control is usually offered to all infants as swelling and bruising is common after the operation. If too much or too little foreskin is removed, it can present problems or scar tissue to develop. Buried penis can also occur from this problem which requires surgical treatment. Some men say the end of the penis becomes less sensitive when the foreskin is removed, however most circumcised males do not believe this is true. Even though the incidence of a serious complication from circumcision is extremely low, meningitis and septicemia may result in
Both males and females can experience tissue damage, disfigurement, and sexual dysfunction after the procedure. According to Bossio, Pukall & Steele (2014), explains how after circumcision males experience effects like erectile dysfunction, loss of sensitivity due to foreskin being removed (2853). For instance , the negatives when adult males undergo the surgical procedure some don’t enjoy masturbation as much, or it the penis decreases the ability to orgasm, but this stems from adult men. On the other hand, studies show that male circumcision can have some medical benefits, and the leading factor for parents to have the procedure done to their sons. According to Stehr (2012), discloses how having the foreskin serves as a protective mechanism from calluses developing opposed to being circumcised (p.22) For example, the foreskin provide a cover for the head of the penis so it doesn’t undergo friction.
Routine baby boy circumcision is one of the most common surgical procedures done every year in the U.S.A. . There is assumed that circumcision has medical and health benefits for the baby thought out life such as, decreases risk of urinary tract infections, reduces the risk of sexually transmitted diseases, protects against penile cancer and cervical cancer, prevents infection and phimosis, and also helps to keep the penis cleaner.
Infant male circumcision is only still practiced in a few countries, America is unfortunately still one of these countries. With the many reasons that circumcision still exists, I’m still unconvinced of its value in our society. With its dwindling popularity I don’t see it lasting very much longer. Genital mutilation is assault. No one should have their private parts altered without their own consent. We have banned genital mutilation on girl infants, why not on boys?
It is believed that circumcision brings a lot of health benefit to human especially in health. Based on the research by the doctors and scientist, it is proven that this practice would help to reduce the risk of infection. This practice could also help to reduce the chance of contract disease especially that is connected to the reproductive organ.
What is female genital mutilation or circumcision? According to the World Health Organization, it comprises all procedures that involve partial or total removal of the external female genitalia, or other injury to the female genital organs for non-medical reasons. (WHO, 2014). It is recognized as violation of human rights for young girls and women. The procedure creates inequality between sexes and to the extreme it is discriminatory against women. There are four types of FMG. Type 1 is referred to as clitoridectomy – which is the partial or total removal of the clitoris. Type 2 is referred to as excision – which is the partial or total removal of the clitoris and the labia minora, with or without excision of the labia majora. Type 3 is referred to as infibulation – which is the narrowing of the vaginal opening through the creation of a covering seal. Type 4 is referred to as other – like the others it alters the female genitalia without medical purpose like piercing, scraping, pricking and cauterizing. (WHO, 2014). The practice is believed to start in Egypt, but has also been documented by the ancient Romans. The Romans would perform the procedure on their slaves to prevent pregnancy. (N. Toubia, 1994).