Pharmaceutical Chemicals ( Phcs )

911 WordsDec 3, 20154 Pages
Pharmaceutical chemicals (PHCs) are important in the treatment of human and animal disease conditions (Thiele-Bruhn and Beck, 2005). They are recognized as biologically active compounds and their molecular weights may range from 200 to 500 / 1000 Dalton. Currently, there is little information on the total global administration of pharmaceuticals to humans and animals. Despite the unavailability of data on drug administrations across countries, the total global sales were $518 billion in 2004 (Kümmerer, 2009). This figure is even projected to increase to nearly $1.2 trillion by 2016 with the influence of merging markets, biologics and generics (IMS Health, 2012). Pharmaceuticals available to the United States (U.S.) population are categorized under prescription (branded and non-branded) and over-the-counter medications. The prevalence of pharmaceuticals in wastewaters, effluents and freshwater resources is global in nature. For example, several chemicals were reported for UK estuaries (Thomas and Hilton, 2004), Spanish surface and drinking waters (Gaffney et al., 2015) and source / drinking waters from Japan (Simazaki et al., 2015). In addition, other studies have detected PHCs in wastewater from confined animal feeding operations (CAFOs) (Meyer et al., 2000; Khan et al., 2008), sewage and wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) (Zuehlke et al., 2004; Palmer et al., 2008; Zorita et al., 2009; Garcia et al., 2013; Du et al., 2014; Hoque et al., 2014), rivers (Peng et al.,
Open Document