Essay about Phd Comprehensive Exam. in Leadership

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Doctor of Philosophy

George E. Anderson III
School of Business and Technology
Capella University

The mixed method has recently become a popular method of research. Analyze and compare the mixed method, qualitative and quantitative research methods. Evaluate the effectiveness of each as a valid method of research on models of military leadership.


The sociological effects discussed by Kuhn (1996) as to the institutionalization of knowledge paradigms, may account for the fact there is a great deal of concurrence as to the nature of both qualitative
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“The major goal of objectivists is aligned with that of the natural scientists – they identify causal explanations and fundamental laws that explain regularities in human social behavior” (Holden & Lynch, 2004). “Logical positivism uses quantitative and experimental methods to test hypothetical deductive generalizations” (Karami, Rowley, & Analoui, 2006). Social “science is characterized by empirical research; all phenomena can be reduced to empirical indicators which represent the truth” (Sale et al., 2002). “positivistic research assumes… social reality is a complex of causal relations between objects and causes of human behavior which are external to the individual” (Schulenberg, 2007). Einstein discovered the laws of the universe. The attempt by objectivists to discover the laws human social interactions logically follows.
Quantitative Research Techniques “Research methodology is influenced by the logic of experimental designs derived largely from biological science” (Lee, 1992). For a researcher in the hard sciences to validly study any phenomenon, the researcher must be detached and separate from the phenomenon being studied. Hard scientists believe that if the researcher interferes with the phenomenon in any way the value of the study is reduced or negated. Social “objectivists perceive that their studies can be (and of necessity need be) done independently of what is being observed and that their
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