Philosophical Ethics Study Guide Essay

1287 WordsOct 21, 20146 Pages
Philosophical Ethics: Part A 1. Name and briefly describe the four main aspects of the AU decision-making process. i. Scope → Includes all those affected by the act, either directly or indirectly ii. Duration → Considers the length of time of each effect iii. Intensity → Considers the force or strength of each resulting experience iv. Probability → Considers how likely each effect might be, given that we don’t know ahead of time which of the many possible effects will actually occur. 2. Define what act utilitarianism is (your definition should also include a brief description of what utility means vs. disutility). i. Act Unitarianism → States that the morally right act in any given situation is the act that would produce…show more content…
Part B → (4/5 Sentence Response) 10. Describe how Kant conceives of the Good Will. i. Kant believed that no consequence could have fundamental moral worth because the only thing that is good in and of it self is the Good Will. The Good Will freely chooses to do something precisely because it is one’s moral duty, and that duty is dictated by reason. 11. Describe how an absolutist differs from an objectivist. i. Absolutist → Holds that no moral duty can be overridden or allow for exceptions. ii. Objectivist → Holds that the same moral duties hold for everyone, but allows some flexibility for how a duty may apply in specific situations. 12. Explain the inconsistency objection. Which moral theory is typically faced with this objection? i. Inconsistency Objection → Refers to the AU objection that RU doesn’t always maximize utility in specific situations and therefore makes it inconsistent with the goal of promoting utility. ii. Moral Confirmation → Moral confirmation is the moral theory faced with this objection. 13. What is psychological egoism? Which objections can be raised against it? i. Psychological Egoism → As human beings we can choose only what we think is best for ourselves ii. Objection Example → If psychological egoism was accepted, then no choices that are made could ever be considered selfish or unselfish. 14. Explain what Mill means when he says, “It is better to be a human dissatisfied than
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