Philosophy Midterm Notes Essay examples

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Anselm- the ontological argument. Posteriori truth is a truth that requires experience to be known. Priori- such propositions are knowable prior to, or independently of, experience.
1. god is by definition the greatest being possible.
2. A being who fails to exist in the actual world (while existing in other possible worlds) is less perfect than a being who exists in all possible worlds.
Hence, God exists, necessarily.
“maybe an ant cant conceive of a greater creature than an anteater, but that doesn’t mean that anteaters are the most perfect possible beings.

Aquinas-all PKG god.
((((1. Motion. Objects in motion are moved by other objects. Causes must precede effects. No infinite cause/effect chains.
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Design argument- someone created the watch.

David Hume- says that arguments are stronger or weaker depending on how similar the two things being compared are. Dogs & humans- weak. Plants and humans- weak. Says that an argument must be inductive for it to make sense. He thinks belief is only rational if it is sufficiently supported by evidence.

AJ Ayer- says the claim that god exists is neither true nor false, it is meaningless.

Blaise Pascal- this is a modern theory that describes how an agent should choose among different available actions on the basis of the utilities of different outcomes. “gambling” by believing in god, you get an infinite reward (heaven). By not believing, you get an infinite punishment (hell). If you believe in god and there isn’t a god (-10) not a horrible result, yes you have wasted time. If you don’t believe in god and there is no god (+10) you have spent your time doing something enjoyable rather than church.. the expected utility of believing is higher than the utility of not believing. Argues that it can make sense to believe in things that are unsupported by evidence.

William James- says that a person is entitled to believe in god for purely prudential reasons if the belief provides a “vital benefit” and if no decision about theism can be made on the basis of the evidence available. “CHOICES” you choose your own fate.

Pragmatism- is a general philosophical position that has implications
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