Phobias

1174 Words5 Pages
Running head: PHOBIAS AND ADDICTIONS

Phobias and Addictions
PSY/300
Abstract
This essay examines phobias and addictions, how phobias can be developed through operant conditioning and how addictions can be developed through operant conditioning. This essay also examines the distinctions between classical and operant condition and examines “extinction” as it relates to psychological theory and how extinction is achieved in classical and operant conditioning. Phobias and Addictions Numerous psychologists believe that behaviors are learned through conditioning. These conditionings are known as operant, which is based on individual’s response to outside stimuli, and classical conditioning, which is
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Whereas, in operant conditioning a behavior becomes associated with an environmental effect such as a feeling of being rewarded by performing a certain behavior. Classical conditioning is a passive learning experience, whereas Operant conditioning is generally a more active learning experience. What is extinction? In psychology, extinction is the gradual weakening of a conditioned response that results in the behavior decreasing or disappearing. For example, when a dog becomes conditioned to receiving treats due to begging, (reinforcing the behavior), the dog can become conditioned to developing a taste for only treats. At this point the dog will stop eating its regular diet and eat only treats. For extinction, you ignore the dogs begging for treats and eventually this behavior will stop and the dog will resume eating its regular diet. “ Reinforcement is one type of environmental consequence that controls behavior through operant conditioning; the other is punishment, whereas reinforcement always increases the likelihood of a response, either by the presentation of a reward or the removal of an aversive stimulus, punishment decreases the probability that a behavior will recur”(Kowalski & Weston ,2009).While extinction can be actualized, the process of disassociating a person to bring about a change in behavior can be long, and, arduous, yet it can be an extremely rewarding journey. Extinction in classical

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