Physical Based Programs As Interventions For At Risk Youth Essay

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Lubans, Plotinikoff and Lubans (2012) conducted a systemic review of physical based programs as interventions for at-risk youth. Significant increases in social emotional wellbeing were identified for outdoor adventure programs, sport and skill based programs, and physical fitness programs. However, the researchers report that the risk of bias in the existing studies is high. None of the studies reported power calculations to detect the hypothesized effect. Additionally, few of the studies reported attrition rate of participants, or randomization techniques. The authors conclude that although the existing studies of physical based interventions contain methodological flaws, there is some evidence to support these programs may offer psychological and social benefits for at-risk youth. Program evaluations of GOTR demonstrated significant changes in pre to post intervention measures of participants’ self-esteem (DeBate & Thompson, 2005; Debate et al., 2009; Galeotti, 2015), body size satisfaction (DeBate & Thompson, 2005; Debate et al., 2009), eating attitudes (DeBate & Thompson, 2005; Debate et al., 2009;), and commitment to physical activity (Bean, Mazzeo & Fries, 2012; DeBate, Zhang & Thompson, 2007). Excluding a 2011 study (Pettee, DiGioacchino DeBate, High, & Racine, 2011), program evaluations of GOTR have utilized non-experimental, pre to post intervention designs with three of the studies building on prior studies (DeBate & Thompson, 2005; Debate et al., 2007 Debate et
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