Physical Newtorking: Telecommunications Essay

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1. Describe a local land line phone system based on the following Landline Telephone Components.
a. Local Loop - consists of twisted pair copper cables with a maximum length of three miles. It is a physical link from the customer to the service provider’s network; the local loop terminates in a circuit switch housed in a local exchange carrier or telephone exchange.
b. Central Office - a building used to house the inside plant equipment including support for up to 20 local exchanges, each serving a certain geographical exchange area. Bell Systems established a uniform system of identifying each telephone exchange with a three digit code thus inventing the area code.
c. Local Exchanges - serves a group of
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Services are brought to the consumer or business through a cabling link between the consumer or business and the local exchange. This network of cabling is also referred to as the distribution network, since the signals that are sent or received by the local exchange need to be distributed to a large number of connection points and types of consumers. The local exchange acts as the convergence point, or warehouse of sorts, for the information sent from consumers and the point at which services from the global telecommunications are distributed to the consumers. iv. Regional/Metro Networks - referred to as MAN (metro area network), cover the city and are responsible for aggregating info from the local exchanges of a specific service provider, as well as independent providers, and sending the info to the regional and long haul/core networks. A regional network or Wide area network (WAN) is a larger version of a MAN and is responsible for aggregating the info from metro networks. The regional network is usually the last point before the info traffic is put onto the core network. A key requirement of a WAN owner is that it leases lines to other telecommunications service providers because WANs have to aggregate large portions of data from multiple network operators.
c. Cable TV
i. Broadcast TV - Started in 1940’s TV stations would use large antennas to broadcast black and white signals. Consumer would connect antenna to the TV to

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