# Physics Experiment

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EXPERIMENT NO-1

AIM- To determine the frequency of A. C. mains by using an electric vibrator.

APPARATUS- Electric vibrator, table lamp, pulley, weight box, fishing cord, a. c. source.

THEORY- when a cord of mass per unit length m is connected to the vibrating rod of the vibrator and stretched with a tension T, the cord vibrators in segments. If the length of the cord is then adjusted until the nodes are clearly marked, the frequency of the stretched string is the same as of the vibrating rod which is vibrating with the frequency of A.C. Mains. Its frequency of vibrating is given by η=12lTm And this is also frequency of A.C. mains. FIGURE-

PROCEDURE- 1. Switch on current and
Here the leakage current flows in the circuit. This current is known as reverse saturation current. It increases rapidly in the initial stage due to an exponential decrease of diffusion current with increasing reverse voltage. CIRCUIT DIAGRAM- A
V
A
V

PROCEDURE-
SEMICONDOUTOR DIODE: -
FORWARD BIAS: 1. Make the connection as shown in the circuit. 2. Vary the inbuilt d. c. supply voltage in steps of 0.1V and note down corresponding voltmeter and ammeter readings. 3. Plot the graph of voltage (on x-axis) Vs current I (on y-axis).
REVERSE BIAS: 1. Make the connection as shown in the circuit. 2. Put the voltmeter range switch to 50V and ammeter range switch to 200 µA. 3. Vary the supply voltage in steps of 1V and note down corresponding voltmeter and ammeter readings. 4. Plot the graph of voltage (on x-axis) Vs current I (on y-axis).
OBSERVATION TABLE-
SEMICONDOUTOR DIODE: -
FORWARD BIAS: S. NO. | VOLTAGE (V) | CURRENT (mA) | | Division | Least count | Total | Division | Least count | Total | | | | | | | |

REVERSE BIAS: S. NO. | VOLTAGE (V) | CURRENT (µ A) | | Division | Least count | Total | Division | Least count | Total | | | | | | | |

RESULT- Forward and reverse bias characteristics of semiconductor diode is plotted on the graph.
PRECAUTIONS-
1. In the forward bias the p