Physics Experiment : Spectroscopy, Hydrogen, Mercury, Other Gases And Light Sources Using Spectroscopy

1037 WordsOct 7, 20165 Pages
Experiment#1: SPECTROSCOPY Introduction: (a)The purpose of the experiment: To observe the emission spectra of hydrogen, mercury, other gases and light sources using spectroscopy. (b)The theoretical background: Classical physics theories could not explain why the bright lines at discrete wavelengths appeared, but with the advent of Bohr’s model of atom, it was now possible to explain this phenomenon, which also used the key concepts of classical physics. Bohr’s theory states that an electron can reside in any of the several orbits inside an atom. The energy associated with such an orbit number is given by the following equation: E=-2.18*〖10〗^(-18) J(1/n^2 ) where E is the energy of the electron, n is the orbital number. In the experiment, our main focus will be on the energy difference when an electron moves from one orbit to another: δE=E_final-E_initial, which can be re-written as δE=-2.18*〖10〗^(-18) J(1/(n_final^2 )-1/(n_initial^2 )) By exposing hydrogen to electromagnetic radiation, hydrogen electron on the n=1 orbital (ground state) gains energy and moves to a higher energy level, n=2, n=3 etc. The orbital to which the electron jumps depends on the amount of energy it absorbs, which is explained by Plank’s theory which states that the energy associated with each energy level is discrete: energy levels are quantized. One essential point to note is that an electron can only move from one orbital to another, not between them. For example, an electron can only move

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