Physiology & Neurobiology

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Department of Physiology & Neurobiology
PNB 2264 Exam I
Unlike the abdominal viscera, the thoracic viscera are separated into two cavities by an area called the mediastinum. What is the clinical importance of this compartmental arrangement?
The clinical importance of this compartmental arrangement is that the mediastinum region contains a lot of major and essential parts of the human body. The mediastinum contains the pericardial cavity, thymus, trachea, esophagus, and major blood vessels. The fact that it’s placed in a sort of central space of the upper body provides these major parts with a protective barrier of tissues and serous membranes. Even though the mediastinum itself doesn’t have a serous membrane most of the thoracic
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Perspiration is the main way the integumentary system goes through homeostasis. Perspiration is sweat that mostly consists of water and inorganic salts. The movement of liquid thru perspiration also controls the body temperature. People sweat when they are hot while doing physical activities in order to cool down the body. Dehydration is known by signals sent through the concentrations of sodium in the extracellular and intracellular fluids.
The cardiovascular system is responsible for transporting blood carrying oxygen through the body. Homeostasis is especially important in this system because the blood cells maintain the human body functioning. The water and intracellular fluids are constantly performing osmosis as the cells travel through the body.
An important buffer system in the human body involves carbon dioxide (CO2) and bicarbonate ion (HCO-) in the reversible reaction CO2 + H2O  H2CO3  H+ + HCO3-. If a person becomes excited and exhales large amounts of CO2, how will the pH of the person’s body be affected?
The rate of cellular respiration (and hence oxygen consumption and carbon dioxide production) varies with level of activity. Vigorous exercise can increase by 20-25 times the demand of the tissues for oxygen. Getting excited has that similar effect and also increase the tissues desire for oxygen. This is met by increasing the rate and depth of breathing. It is a rising concentration of carbon dioxide not a
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