Physiology Test 3 : Hemorrhagic Shock

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Majriha Naorin
Physiology Test 3: Hemorrhagic Shock

Hypovolemic shock “is an emergency condition in which severe blood and fluid loss make the heart unable to pump enough blood to the body” ( Heller). Hypovolemic shock can be a result of numerous things such as dehydration, excessive diarrhea or bleeding (Nall). Excessive bleeding, both externally and internally, due to injuries is known as Hemorrhagic shock. Hemorrhagic shock is a type of hypovolemic shock that is “associated with the sudden and rapid loss of significant amounts of blood” (Dictionary).

Mechanisms of Hemorrhagic Shock
An average person has about five liters of blood in their body. However, if a person starts to lose a massive amount of blood due to severe
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When there is insufficient amount of blood due to blood loss, organs do not obtain the amount of blood that is needed. As a result, the organs do not receive enough nutrients and oxygen; hypoxia. A decrease of blood pressure also decreases in perfusion of the carotid and aortic bodies, “several clusters of chemoreceptors” (Boron).This decline in perfusion, increases the rate of the chemoreceptors which increases the firing of the sympathetic vasoconstriction (Boron).
This activation of the sympathetic nerves causes the release of norepinephrine (neurotransmitters) and epinephrine (hormones) from the adrenal medulla (located on top of the kidney), which then binds with α1-adrenoceptors (Klabunde). As a result, the smooth muscle activates and vasoconstrict. This causes the heart rate to increase along with the stroke volume and total peripheral resistance which prevents blood from escaping. Due to the increase of heart rate, the hemorrhagic patients will experience tachycardia (Boron).
Though turning on the sympathetic nervous system is body’s response to the blood loss so that it can go back to homeostasis, it can also detrimental to the body. Since there is a severe amount of blood that is exiting the body, by increasing the heart rate, it will be supplying more blood to the wound, releasing even more blood out of the body. Although the body does not redistribute blood to organs due
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