Piaget's Theory of Cognitive Development

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Cognitive development is the development of thought processes, including remembering, problem solving, and decision-making, from childhood through adolescence to adulthood. Historically, the cognitive development of children has been studied in a variety of ways. The oldest is through intelligence tests. An example of this is the Stanford Binet Intelligence Quotient test. IQ scoring is based on the concept of "mental age," according to which the scores of a child of average intelligence match his or her age. IQ tests are widely used in the United States, but they have been criticized for defining intelligence too narrowly. In contrast to the emphasis placed on a child's native abilities by intelligence testing, learning theory grew…show more content…
They learn to respond to and manipulate objects and to use them in goal-directed activity. The ultimate task for a child at this stage is to develop object permanence, which is the realization that objects and people continue to exist even when they are out of sight. This accomplishment marks the end of the sensorimotor stage. From ages two to seven years, children are in Piaget's third stage, the preoperational stage. This is a period of rapid development in language. Intelligence is demonstrated through the use of symbols and memory and imagination are developed. At this stage, thinking is still restricted. Egocentrism is predominant and they feel that everyone sees, thinks, and feels the same way they do. Children also show animistic thinking at this stage, believing that inanimate objects have feelings. A concept that is not reached yet at this age is conservation; they are not aware that a given quantity of matter remains the same if it is rearranged or changed in its appearance. Two restrictions in their thinking are centration and reversibility. Centration is the tendency to focus on only one dimension of a stimulus and ignore the other dimensions. Reversibility, which they have not yet developed, is the realization that after any change in its shape, position, or order, matter can
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