The building is surmounted with a big cornice, of a size that emphasizes the power the building expresses. The quoins on the side show an ending to the building, which in combination with the cornice form a sort of frame, there can be no mistake made about the independence of the building. The pilasters on the outside are of Ionian order on the first floor, and Corinthian order on the top floor. Around the courtyard, the same orders were used, but with an added Tuscan order for the elements on the ground floor.
Many similar characteristics are used throughout the Classical and Early Empire when the construction of temples was being built. Though old techniques were used, the advancement of new methods were being introduced to build faster, stronger, and in different shapes and sizes. We will discuss the Parthenon and the Pantheon; though similar in name, they do have some differences that represent the Greek and Roman styles.
The palace of Versailles contains architecture from the Greek, Roman, and Gothic eras. The Greeks used Doric, Ionic, Corinthian order columns in their architecture (Fiero 59). One example of Doric columns can be found in the columns that helped support the weight of
Although the Romans were influenced and used parts of what the Greeks had previously designed and established, they quickly adopted new techniques combined with the existing techniques to construct a whole new range of architectural structures. In this style the Romans added to the Greek Corinthian columns making them even more decorative. The Romans also created their own column style known as the Composite Capital which was a combination of the volute from the Ionic order and the acanthus design from the Corinthian. (Cartwright,
The manipulation of materials used by the Romans has still not been equaled to this day. This reality is surprising when considering the span of time which has passed since the completion of the Pantheon. A period of almost two thousand years has come and gone without any other dome structure equivalently matching the enormity and importance of the Pantheon. Hadrian’s commencement of the Pantheon has created one of the more “influential works in Western architectural history (Fazio, Moffett, and Lawrence). Keeping in mind the pantheon was created as a temple to commemorate all the pagan gods of ancient Rome (Alcott). At the time it was a very large undertaking and Hadrian felt that using architecture was a sufficient course of action to demonstrate his imperial prowess. The Roman Empire was outstretched over a vast expanse of land and could not sustain itself, however Hadrian used his knowledge of the lay to procure some elements for his reconstruction of the Pantheon. Literally meaning “many gods” the pantheon also served as a sundial with an oculus opening at the apex of the dome. Hadrian’s belief in pagan deities coerced him to create a grand structure suitable to express the divine influence of the gods over the Roman Empire. In fact, Hadrian’s reign produced many architectural exploits that had never been seen or even attempted before his
The ancient Romans created and borrowed fundamental types of concepts that made up buildings. The ideas that the Romans borrowed were basic ideas such as the column. A column is a vertical shaped pillar with the chief design concern of supporting a building. Most columns consist of three parts, the base, the shaft, and the capital. The shaft is usually cylindrical in shape. The Greeks had three basic types of columns, Doric, Ionic, and Corinthian. All three types have narrow fillets on them. These were small vertical slits that ran the length of the column. The Romans modified the column and added two types, Truscan and Composile. The columns became widely used in homes and temples in Greece and later in Rome ("Architecture").
The rectangular pattern of the tiles in back of the Italian Renaissance painting underlines the geometric arrangement of the figures in the foreground and the background. All of the images of the people look carefully 'placed' by the artist. Not only was interest in classical era sculpture and architecture revived during the Renaissance in Italy, but also interest in math and science, and the near-mathematical precision of the painting reflects this fact.
Buildings were demolished and new ones erected. The government’s goal was to refresh medieval Florence with the stylish atmosphere of Paris. The triumphal arch known as the Arcone was erected in 1895. Cafés and trattorias bordering the piazza attracted artists, writers and intellectuals. Today the square is still lined with these popular eating establishments, although elegant shops and art galleries have cropped up among them. The square has become a theater to musicians, street artists and strolling romantics. How thrilling that it was all right outside our door! Since our visit to Florence was just an overnight stay, our location could not have been better.
Compare and contrast Hadrian’s Pantheon with Justinian’s Hagia Sophia. Both structures use domes to create spectacular spaces and both try to combine right angled rectangular or square forms with circles. But how do they differ in their plans, details, and solutions to the problems of how to create these forms, as well as in their purpose and function?
The functionality of piazzas depend mainly on location, modern vehicular transport, and history. There exists six types of piazzas in modern cities: the relic, monumental, mercantile, neighborhood park, neighborhood market, and vehicular. In San Gimingano exists La Cisterna, a relic piazza surrounded by buildings and noble towers with a well at the center. It's focus is on tourist trade now, but in the eleventh century, is was an urban public center. Relic piazzas are characterized by their historical background and their limited number.
Columns, as noted, were a prominent feature of Roman architecture, which was drawn from the Greeks. Although Rome did not copy Greek columns exactly, “Greek influence is evident in the use of columns,”18 nevertheless, which is to be expected since Romans greatly admired Greek columns.19 Rome also adopted the Greek's mortar and ashlars.20 Additionally, since Greeks believed “that beauty lies in mathematical harmony,” Greek influence is seen in Imperial temples which contained set, mathematical ratios of design. As noted, when Rome began producing sculpture, they began producing Hellenistic-influenced idealistic sculptures.21 The reversion to older Greek forms is not a surprise if one considers Rome's admiration for Greek sculpture. Such admiration of Greek sculpture is evidenced by Rome's copying of Greek sculptures, such as the Venus di Milo.22
The Roman Pantheon is a monumental building that has clearly influenced many forms of architecture throughout history. The entire building has been constructed of concrete and at the time in history, is an extraordinary feat to accomplish with its dome form with no real interior structural support. Although the Pantheon has influenced many buildings, it is not particularly an eye pleasing building to view compared to the pavilion in an English Garden from the 18th Century. For example, the exterior of the Pantheon consists of an octastyle portico, backed against a tall, square attic block connecting the cylindrical walls and the portico. This combination of different forms and shapes coming together does not create a pleasing connection or
I chose to observe the Marble Column with Vine Decoration. I chose his piece because of its relation to architecture because of the interest that I have in it. This column is about six feet tall and made of solid marble. It is covered with winding vines that are convexly carved and begin at the base of the column and ascend to the top. The column is situated in a corner which does not permit the viewer to walk all the way around the object easily. It is placed near other Roman and Greek objects as well as modern sculptures. Being placed near a window, it has a natural light source to highlight the natural stone and intricate carvings. By analyzing this piece of art that also served as an architectural component, it can be said that this piece
Initial observations of the Roman Pantheon from the front appear to be similar to the ruins of the Greek Parthenon, but really both structures are somewhat unique in their composition, purpose, design, and fate. Constructed over half of a millennium after the Parthenon was built, the Pantheon, built in 27 B.C., exhibits some of the architectural styles and characteristics of its predecessor. However, the Romans refined Greek building techniques, thereby developing a unique and more advanced architectural style.
There is often some confusion when people start talking about the post-modernism and modernism in architecture in terms of their philosophical terminology differences. Modern architecture is known for its minimalism (Linder, 2004); buildings were functional and economical rather than comfortable and beautifully decorated. The post-modernism architecture, however, is called a “neo-eclectic, significantly assuming the role of a regeneration of period styles for designing houses, and a never-ending variety of forms and characteristics, asymmetrical designs for commercial buildings” (Fullerton Heritage, 2008). An example of these two polar opposites, “Less is more” made by Mies van der Rohe in 1928 (Blake, 1976) and "Less is a bore" made by