This article studies the ability of regeneration possessed by the planaria. Morgan (1898) observes in different methods how the planaria are cut into smaller pieces, and then he observes the pieces to see if the planaria will regenerate. When the planaria are cut near the head, the pieces do not appear to regenerate, and the pieces cut too small also do not possess the ability to regenerate (Morgan, 1898). Pieces cut from the middle and the end piece of the planaria, however, have shown results of respawning from within the old tissue. When the author tried to fuse two sampled pieces together, he observed that the pieces formed a union (Morgan, 1898). However, the fusion did not last long, and the pieces died long after fusing together (Morgan, 1898). It is likely that the samples were not able to complete the regeneration after the union emerged. I will be able to use this report for my lab report as a reference to the process of taking samples from a live planaria, sampled from the likely
Caffeine is a wildly use drug in today’s society. Caffeine is a methylated xanthine which acts as a mild central nervous system stimulant (MS & RL, 2001). It is a stimulant which acts upon the central nervous system and increases alertness, wakefulness and restlessness and it increases the release of catecholamine from renal medullar (Fernandez, 2016; Collines, 2007). It is present in many beverages. Caffeine is found in coffee, tea, soft drinks, products containing chocolate (cocoa) and some medication (Collines, 2007). It is used as a cardiac and respiratory stimulant (Collines, 2007).Caffeine is the most frequently ingested pharmacologically active substance in the world (Collines, 2007).
They have the ability to self-renew or multiply while maintaining the potential to develop into cells. Such as cells blood, heart, bones, skin, muscles, brain etc. Stem cells have an interesting history that has been somewhat tainted with debate and controversy. In the mid-1800s it was discovered that cells were basically the building blocks of life and that some cells had the ability to produce other cells.
Introduction: Many model organisms have been used in order to advance human medicine. The primary one being the lab mouse, but there are several other different species that give rise to advancements in human treatment. Planaria and axolotls have been a prominent source of how signaling mechanisms work in order to regenerate parts in eukaryotic organisms. If researchers can figure out how to turn these signaling pathways on in the conserved regeneration part of the human genome, then doctors will likely be able to use this to their advantage. This can be achieved by manipulating human signaling pathways to regenerate tissues within the heart, lungs, nervous system, and even systems with multiple tissue types like the limbs. This is where the study of axolotls comes in.
The stem cell of the embryo can divide for long periods of time and still have the ability to produce all cell type in an organism. Their ability to do so is why scientists are trying to find ways to use them to cure or treat diseases. They think that they can programed to repair or replace the disease ridden cells of an infected patient Some diseases that they think can be
The stem cells that regenerate a frog tail and a salamander limb have very different properties of stem cells. In these animals, each tissue – such as muscle, nerve, or skin – has its own set of stem cells that just make the different types of cells in that particular tissue. In other words, a muscle stem cell cannot make skin and skin stem cells can’t make muscle. These multipotent tissue-specific stem cells are probably very similar to the stem cells in our own bodies that renew or repair tissues such as our skin or muscle. How do these regenerative animals regrow such complex structures? The answer may be closer than we
Embryonic stem cells are found in human blastocysts (Marcovitz 17). A blastocyst is a very young embryo (just a few days old) that contains around 200 undifferentiated stem cells (Marcovitz 17). German Zoologist Valentin Hacker coined the term “stem cell” after he discovered them in a blastocyst of a crustacean (Marcovitz 18). Embryonic stem cells were collected for the first time in 1988 by Dr. James Thomson of University of Wisconsin and by Dr. John Gearheart of Johns Hopkins (Panno 76). These stem cells are unspecialized; they do not perform a specific function like cells such as muscle and nerve do (“Stem Cells”). They are also pluripotent, meaning they have the ability to divide and become specialized cells (“Stem Cells”). This is why stem cells hold so
Your friend’s dog, Spot, jumped onto a table with a terrarium housing your pet salamander, Lizzie. Unfortunately, the table tipped over and Spot has suffered a head injury which damaged the primary motor cortex. Lizzie lost most of the distal right forelimb in the accident. Please answer the following questions regarding the nervous system and regeneration, in a .docx, .pptx, or .pdf format.
These cells can grow into many things such as organs, tissues, muscles, or blood. These cells are able to renew themselves through cell division. One of the most unique aspects to these cells are they are able to replenish and repair themselves as long as the person is alive. This can be seen most commonly in red cells of the bone marrow. These cells are continuously repairing and replacing damaged and old cells. Because of stem cells unique ability to renew themselves into new cells, scientist have shown great interest in these cells. Stem cells that are being studied most by scientist are embryotic stem cells, adult stem cells, and induced pluripotent stem
Stem cells make it possible for regeneration in the planarian and they work by regrowing the cells that were lost (Showk 2014). Although, regeneration can still be possible if the planarian does not have their full central nervous system intact (Emeritus 1969). In able for the planarian to regenerate, there has cells that can duplicate the old tissue and make sure the new tissue is formed right. (Reddien 2004). In a planarian there is a material called blastema and blastema is an important material which developes cells that are needed in order to have a full healthy organism (Reddien 2004). Blastemas are able to remake all of the tissues that were lost from an injury but they cannot put them in the correct place so blastema formation and morphallaxis are needed to fully replace the tissue (Reddien 2004). Morphallaxis is used to restore the symmetry of the new tissues and it also models how and where the tissues are to be placed in the organism (Reddien 2004). A planarian can be cut into 279 tiny pieces and it will still be able to regenerate with all of those pieces of the organism (Showk
Richard J. Gross a developmental biologist once said, “If there were no regeneration, there could be no life. If everything regenerated there would be no death.”
Before starting the observations, the planarians had to be cut into sections using a scalpel, in this case, they were cut into three. To make them easier to cut, the were chilled on ice to slow them down.The flatworms were then put into separate labelled petri dishes, where they were then placed in a cool and dark area. After a few days, the worms grew and were easier to observe. From this lab, it can be concluded that planarians will regenerate no matter how they were cut. Wormy and Wormy 2.0, were both trisected transversely and were thought to grow into six new planarians, three coming from each worm, and one of them possessing two heads. The results observed for Wormy fully supported the hypothesis, and the three new planarians had a head,
Stem cells are special cells that have the ability to regenerate and repair damaged tissue. Embryonic stem cells appear to possess the ability to become almost any tissue within the body. This, in theory, means that a cell could be taken from one section of an embryo that may have become a part
Stem cell, being capable of giving rise to many other cells types, is one of the main developmental biology research methods in relation to flatworm regeneration. Major organisms, including flatworm taxa, are capable of showing little to no regeneration, leading to the observation of living species and how they interact to unravel the mechanism of regeneration, including aging. By utilizing the ability to observe BrdU labeling, used in cell proliferation, and maceration, the act of softening and breaking down skin due to moisture. Regeneration observed in living specimens showed to be a process that is completely successful when regeneration remained in the posterior-most pharynx level, otherwise failed if the animals lacked the brain & parts of the pharynx. Surprisingly, minimal cells are needed for a complete registration of the specimen, M. lignano that
Many of us have all heard the saying that a “lizard can lose its tail,” and bizarrely enough it will grow back. This was always considered impossible for humans, an idea belonging in the realm of science fiction, but now the regeneration of tissue is an extremely realistic possibility. Despite some opinions, this process does not happen naturally, or take place as cinematically as one might imagine. Over the past decade, there have been major advances in regenerative medicine, commonly known as stem cell research. Stem cells are undifferentiated cells within the body that have the capability to specialize into any tissue. They are most commonly found in cord blood, bone marrow, organ donations, placenta, and embryos . Stem cells are seen by some as a new miracle treatment, encouraging many countries to invest in their research.