Plant Hormones : Chemical Substances

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Plant hormones otherwise known as phytohormones are chemical substances synthesized within the cell for use in regulation, cell to cell communication, and growth and development of the plant. These hormones are usually transported to a different cell to elicit a response. However, there are some which are able to act within the cell in which they were synthesized. They are synthesized in low concentrations and they are small in size for ease of transportation through the cell wall. The location at which they are synthesized varies as such it is not limited to a specific cell type. Depending on the situation, the response to the hormones can vary greatly. They can act as inhibitors, stimulators, and are also able to affect the biosynthesis of other hormones. Plant hormones usually act as a group through “cross-talk” between hormones and other signals in order to coordinate various responses necessary for the plant. 1- After biosynthesis of the hormone has occurred, they are conjugated so as to remain chemically inactive. Once they are active or have been de-conjugated, they will be able to bind to specific receptors so as to enter signal transduction and elicit a response. In signal transduction, the protein can go through either protein phosphorylation or proteolysis to achieve downstream effects. In phosphorylation, protein kinases are able to add phosphate groups to activate a protein. Conversely, dephosphorylation can occur through the use of protein phosphatase which
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