For the past few years, the American Lung Association has been releasing its annual reports on the “State of The Air” that lists the most polluted cities in the United States. For instance, in 2014, out of the seven cities ranked to have the worst air quality, six of them are in California. The two major air pollution culprits in California are from the transportation sources such as trucks and cars, or from the stationary sources such as industrial facilities and refineries (Ierodiakonou, et al. 392). However, the California Air Pollution Control Officers Association includes other pollutants in their reports such as Sulphur(IV) oxide, Carbon(II) Oxide gas and Nitrogen(IV) Oxide from chemical industries, which also causes harm to human beings and the environment at large.
In Shreveport, LA, many residents suffer from respiratory issues that they believe are caused by the local refinery, Calumet (Moskowitz). Residents have suffered for generations losing family members to cancer that they believe is brought on by pollution that the refinery emits. Some residents suffer lesser but chronic health issues ranging from minor respiratory issues like asthma to blood clots in their lungs. “Calumet denies that its refinery is the cause of any of these health issues” (Moskowitz). Many chemicals that are released by refineries can cause respiratory problems, cancer, nerve damage, and in some cases even death. There is no absolute way to be sure that all health problems happening near Calumet are caused by the pollution that it emits, but it could be a contributing factor in worsening symptoms. A resident of Marrero, LA, a town south of Norco refining, stated that they could not leave their house due to excess levels of pollution triggering asthma attacks (Ludwig). Sulfur dioxide is a known chemical that can trigger asthma attacks, it is also one of the many harmful chemicals that can be released by refineries (Sturgis). Refineries will measure levels of emissions when there is a chemical spill, so they know almost exactly how much pollution they have emitted. Minor incidents are not always reported or are under reported, but they can have the same damaging effects on the environment and the overall health of the community (Sturgis). “LABB’s reports confirms what workers and residents have known for years-petrochemical companies to often skirt the laws for reporting serious incidents”
Pollution continues to pose an enormous threat to residents of urban cities worldwide. In the August 2008 Monthly Update, it is stated that approximately 800,000 deaths each year can be attributed to outdoor air pollution, making pollution the single most harmful environmental hazard to human health in urban areas (Kallman). The fact that pollution kills hundreds of thousands of people each year alone portrays just how dangerous living in these conditions can be. Kallman writes about a study which proves an increase in upper respiratory diseases, cardiovascular mortality, respiratory mortality, and low birth weights when exposed to air pollutants (August 2008: Monthly Update). These can be very serious diseases and complications which, when contracted, can lead to death or very serious illnesses. There
This article, written by Jocelyn Lockwood, explores the severity and effects of air pollution in the Dallas-Fort Worth region. Lockwood begins her article by discussing the findings of the ‘State of the Air 2015’ report, written by the American Lung Association, to emphasize that the amount of pollution in the air is dangerous. The author continues the article by referencing an interview with Blazer, a 9-year-old who has asthma, to give more evidence
In the past decade, the severe air pollution problem in fast developing countries, particularly in China, has caused highly social and scientific attention. In 2014, 92 % of the world population are exposed over to the WHO Air Quality Guidelines (AQG) PM2.5 concentration level of 10 μg/m3 (World Health Organization, 2016). Ambient particulate matter (PM) pollution ranked as the third leading risk factor in India and Nepal, and ranked as the fifth in China (GBD 2015 Risk Factors Collaborators, 2016). In 2012, about 3 million deaths globally were attributed solely to ambient air pollution, and around 87% of it occurred in low- and middle-income countries (World Health Organization, 2016).
Arizona is on the rise as one of the fastest metropolitan areas in the United States of America. In fact, in 2015 Forbes Magazine ranks Phoenix, Arizona as the 11th fastest growing city in the U.S.1 This growth is due the unprecedented resources and growing opportunities in the state of Arizona. With all of these opportunities come more production, which means more emissions from various industries and cars, more fossil fuels burned, and household and farming chemicals added to the sky. All of these are examples of pollution; which is one the sacrifices that comes with being a large city that is emerging. Pollution is defined as the action or process of making land, water, air, etc., dirty and not safe or suitable to use.2 We understand that Phoenix is a rapidly growing city, but they should be able to grow without being a detriment to the environment and health of their citizens. The purpose of my report is to examine the problem of air pollution in Phoenix, Arizona and look at solutions to fix this problem.
No matter where you are at today the air quality is poor and increasing in most cities. Dallas-Fort Worth is ranked number seven according to the American Lung Association’s air quality report for having the worst air. Everywhere you look there is pollution and its time to take dramatic measures in order to lower health and en-vironmental problems. Problems that are increasing due to the higher demand for goods, services, and transportation.
Air pollution is the dispersion of particulates, biological molecules, or other harmful materials into the atmosphere, causing diseases, allergies and death to humans, damage to other living organisms such as animals and food crops or the natural or built environments (Brunekreef & Holgate, 2002; Nowak, Crane, & Stevens, 2006). Polluted air directly or indirectly may cause or be attributed to an increase in fatality or serious unwellness and decline humans state of health (Kampa & Castanas, 2008). For example, in Canada, the Ontario Medical Association has attributed 9500 premature deaths per year and evaluates increased costs of health care ($506.64 M) and missed productivity ($374.18) as a result of air pollution (Rowe, 2011). Thus, employment
According to a study done in the US (WHO, 2010), persons with lower socioeconomic status had higher levels of PM2.5 exposure than those of a higher status. This was based on the following indicators: Unemployment, education, earnings and poverty. The study revealed that persons with education less than a high school degree had higher exposures than those with a high school degree. This is also true for the unemployed, those in the poverty range as well as those with lower earnings than those of a higher status.
The primary health issues that come with the impact of air pollution are asthma, cardiovascular illnesses and premature mortality. These health issues are due to pollution and the poor air quality such as ozone. Thus, human health becomes a concern and issue. The individuals who are usually more vulnerable to such illnesses are the children and elderly. For example, there’s approximately 162,438 children under the age of and 258,586 adults aged 65 years and older in Riverside county that are prone to environmental health illnesses (cdph). According to UCLA institute of the Environment and Sustainability,
Air pollution has been recognized as a major threat to environmental health, and the effects that it can have on the population are extremely varied. In the environmental aspects, air
Introduction: Air pollution in modern society is becoming more and more of a pressing issue. I became intrigued when I learned about the level of air quality in places such as Beijing, New York City, and London. I was curious about the air quality in a smaller large scale city such as Savannah, GA. Savannah is a large city but has a smaller population than Atlanta. I also thought about how the air quality could improve after it rains.
In the state of Utah, 1,000 to 2,000 people die from air pollution annually. Utah counties have very received very unfortunate air grades from the American Lung Association. This is a problem because of the health risks that poor air poses for the general public. However, there are a multitude of ways steps can be taken to greatly decrease the issues of Utah’s air quality. Therefore, Utah’s air quality is a significant threat.
To help minimize the risk of people living in the city getting sick, because small amounts of soot in the air can trigger heart attacks and contribute to lung cancer, diabetes, and other deadly illnesses, the EPA has started issuing more strict regulations that are forcing people to use cleaner fuel and engines in diesel trucks and buses, because the city can not regulate privately owned trucks so they have begun replacing old buses and trucks with new, cleaner buses. Under the EPA’s new rule, communities will have to meet a much more strict annual average for how much soot can be in the air. The new target will be about 20 percent tighter than the old one. About 66 counties - mostly in the East and California - would fail the test today. The EPA estimates that by 2020, these rules will improve air quality enough so the only places in the country that will violate the soot standard will be seven counting in Southern California. The EPA believes the soot limit will save much more than it costs. To implement this soot limit it would cost tens of millions of dollars. Industry officials warn that the new standard will get in the way of economic recovery in some areas. The United States already has made a lot of progress in cleaning up fine particles over the decades. Recent epidemiological studies show that is
During the first day of measuring, the AQI for PM 2.5 was fairly good with a score of 27, which explains why the amount PM 2.5 was relatively low. The results from Day 1 did not align with my original hypothesis. I found that most of the living spaces along Philadelphia’s most congested roadways had lower levels of PM 2.5 than many of the parks and apartments near routes with normal levels of congestion. The average level of PM 2.5 for all of the “green” locations was 2.33 while the average level of PM 2.5 for the “red” locations was only 1.46. Additionally, the area with the highest amount of PM 2.5 was Dorchester Condominiums an apartment locacted along a roadway with normal levels of traffic.