Pneumonia Case Study

1647 WordsDec 4, 20127 Pages
I. Introduction This is a case of a 74 year old woman who was diagnosed with Community Acquired Pneumonia. Pneumonia is an inflammation or infection of the lungs most commonly caused by a bacteria or virus. Pneumonia can also be caused by inhaling vomit or other foreign substances. In all cases, the lungs' air sacs fill with pus , mucous, and other liquids and cannot function properly. This means oxygen cannot reach the blood and the cells of the body. Most pneumonias are caused by bacterial infections.The most common infectious cause of pneumonia in the United States is the bacteria Streptococcus pneumoniae. Bacterial pneumonia can attack anyone. The most common cause of bacterial pneumonia in adults is a bacteria called…show more content…
We each have two lungs, a left lung and a right lung. These are divided up into 'lobes', or big sections of tissue separated by 'fissures' or dividers. The right lung has three lobes but the left lung has only two, because the heart takes up some of the space in the left side of our chest. The lungs can also be divided up into even smaller portions, called 'bronchopulmonary segments'. These are pyramidal-shaped areas which are also separated from each other by membranes. There are about 10 of them in each lung. Each segment receives its own blood supply and air supply. Air enters your lungs through a system of pipes called the bronchi. These pipes start from the bottom of the trachea as the left and right bronchi and branch many times throughout the lungs, until they eventually form little thin-walled air sacs or bubbles, known as the alveoli. The alveoli are where the important work of gas exchange takes place between the air and your blood. Covering each alveolus is a whole network of little blood vessel called capillaries, which are very small branches of the pulmonary arteries. It is important that the air in the alveoli and the blood in the capillaries are very close together, so that oxygen and carbon dioxide can move (or diffuse) between them. So, when you breathe in, air comes down the trachea and through the bronchi into

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