Memory is divided into three categories. These categories consist of: sensory memory, short term memory and long term memory, out of these short term memory is the main focus in this essay. It has been widely researched due to interest of how much memory can be stored, how long this memory can be stored for and what information is memorised.
Memory providing the awareness of our existence among people is a skill that needs to fulfil its function. It is a cognitive process and there is no possibility of having the acquisition of information from our environment and drawing on our past experiences without memory. The first studies about memory are conducted in the field of philosophy and it was related to improve memory in general. Memory has become a very important element in philosophy when we look at some researches carried out in the last century. The fact that many philosophers such as Socrates, Plato and Aristoteles concentrated on memory densely is still a mystery to be solved.
Memory is the retention of information over time and it changes through our lifespan, from infancy through adulthood (Santrock 218). There are two types of memory, explicit and implicit.
Messages become shorter when passed from one person to the next. Memories can be modified to fit one’s personal social experiences (i.e., conventionalization). Memory is unreliable, sensory stimuli are not stored as is but are actively transformed by the brain for storage depending on individual factors such as personal relevance and expectations. The most essential information is better remembered, but what is considered “most essential” may depend on an individual’s experiences. This suggests memory does not function as a video recording, but is a highly complex process that is influenced by an individual’s levels of attention, motivation, expectations, experiences, emotional state, etc. It also suggests that memory is an active process that involves constructing narratives out of events rather than passively recording
Salvador Dali’s 1931 painting The Persistence of Memory is a hallmark of the surrealist movement. Dali famously described his paintings as “hand-painted dream photographs” and The Persistence of Memory is a prime example of that description. The Persistence of Memory depicts striking and confusing images of melting pocket watches and a mysterious fetus-like structure all sprawled over the dreamscape representation of Dali’s home of Port Lligat, Spain. Dali uses strange images, color, and shadows in The Persistence of Memory to convey an abstract view on dreams, time, and reality.
Every act of remembering is also, intrinsically, an act of forgetting. Giving preference to particular details of an event lessens the immediacy of others. Thus, memory is its own, unique narrative culled from an almost endless sea of details present, and sometimes not present, in the original event. Memory is the past, reformulated and interpreted through the lens of the present (Huyssen 1995). When an event is commemorated through a physical act of memory, the narrowing of possible details becomes even more finely tuned, limited by the physical scope of possibilities for bodies in a three-dimensional space.
One of the most interesting aspects of the human brain is the ability to remember and to travel back in time within your memory. The documentary, How Does Your Memory Work?, looks into the complexity of memory over a lifetime, something most of us take for granted it says. We learn that memory develops early, but as time progresses, some parts of memory can disappear. We also find out that our memory shapes who we are, including our personalities. Included in this video are interviews of a young guy who was born prematurely with memory not fully developed and a young girl who was a victim of sexual assault with a traumatic memory of her attack.
This article explains the importance of getting the perfect amount of sleep at night. The idea that sleeping for less than five hours or more than nine hours proves to have a negative effect on the human body. Sleep deprivation has a closely related link to memory retention and can cause a person to have trouble with daily task. The author continues to explain that not only is the brain effected by too little or too much sleep, but the rest of the body is also effected. Conditions such as high blood pressure, diabetes, and even depression have links to not getting the perfect amount of sleep. The article concludes with listing tips to get the ideal amount of sleep at night, such as, going to sleep and waking up at the same time every day and limiting the amount of caffeine that is consumed throughout the day.
Memory – what it is, how it works, and how it might be manipulated – has long been a subject of curious fascination. Remembering, the mind-boggling ability in which the human brain can conjure up very specific, very lucid, long-gone episodes from any given point on the timeline of our lives, is an astounding feat. Yet, along with our brain’s ability of remembrance comes also the concept of forgetting: interruptions of memory or “an inability of consciousness to make present to itself what it wants” (Honold, 1994, p. 2). There is a very close relationship between remembering and forgetting; in fact, the two come hand-in-hand. A close reading of Joshua Foer’s essay, “The End of Remembering”, and Susan Griffin’s piece, “Our Secret”, directs us
Learning is a very important aspect of humans and creatures alike. Not only is it essential to the survival and adaption into this world but it also defines who we are as individuals (Schiller et al, 2010; Tronson & Taylor, 2007). Memories from past experiences shape the people that we are today. A crucial element to learning is memory, without it we would not be able to retain information. The process of memory is very distinct and consists of several different stages: acquisition of memory, consolidation, retrieval and then either reconsolidation or extinction (Debiec & Ledoux, 2004; Diergaarde, Schoffelmeer & De Vries, 2008). As memory is such a critical aspect of learning, it is no wonder that its distinct process has become the topic of much research in the neurobiological universe (Hupbach et al, 2007; Nader & Hardt, 2009).
Memories are vivid experiences that are played in your brain. These are events that many people recall through their life that they later till on. As in the case for Jim, his memory did not happen exactly as he thought it did. There are many theories that can eventually lead to as to why Jim memory faded over time. This essay will examine the different memory theories, the stages of memory from encoding, storage, and retrieval.
Memory is the information that has been encoded, stored, and available for retrieval in our brain. Memory can be subdivided into two broad categories: working memory (or short-term memory) and long-term memory. Long-term memory can in turn be divided into subsystems, one being episodic memory. To know the sex differences in episodic memory, it is important to know the definition. According to Herlitz and Rehnman, they described episodic memory as the conscious recollection of unique personal experiences in terms of their content (what), location (where), and temporal occurrence.
Prior to the early 1970s the prominent idea of how memories were formed and retrieved revolved around the idea of processing memory into specific stores (Francis & Neath, 2014). These memory stores were identified as sensory memory, short-term memory, and long-term memory. In contrast to this idea, two researchers named Fergus Craik and Robert Lockhart proposed an idea linking the type of encoding to retrieval (Goldstein, 2015). This idea is known as the levels of processing theory. According to this theory, memory depends on the depth of processing that a given item is received by an individual (Goldstein, 2015). Craik and Lockhart stressed four points in supporting their theory. First, they argued that memory was the result of a series of analyses, each level of the series forming a deeper level of processing than the preceding level (Francis & Neath, 2014). The shallow levels of processing were believed to hold less importance and are defined as giving little attention to meaning of an item. Examples of which include focusing on how a word sounds or memorizing a phone number by repeating it over and over again (Francis & Neath, 2014) (Goldstein, 2015). The deeper levels processing involve paying close attention to the meaning of an item and relating that meaning to something else, an example of which would be focusing on the meaning of a word rather than just how the word sounds (Francis & Neath, 2014) (Goldstein, 2015). The second point Craik and Lockhart
Memory makes us. It is, to an extent, a collection of unique and personal experiences that we, as individuals, have amassed over our lifetime. It is what connects us to our past and what shapes our present and the future. If we are unable remember the what, when, where, and who of our everyday lives, our level of functioning would be greatly impacted. Memory is defined as or recognized as the “sum or total of what we remember.” Memory provides us the ability to learn and adjust to or from prior experiences. In addition, memory or our ability to remember plays an integral role in the building and sustaining of relationships. Additionally, memory is also a process; it is how we internalize and store our external environment and experiences. It entails the capacity to remember past experiences, and the process of recalling previous experiences, information, impressions, habits and skills to awareness. It is the storage of materials learned and/or retained from our experiences. This fact is demonstrated by the modification, adjustment and/or adaptation of structure or behavior. Furthermore, we as individuals, envision thoughts and ideas of the present through short-term memory, or in our working memory, we warehouse past experiences and learned values in long-term memory, also referred to as episodic or semantic memory. Most importantly, memory is malleable and it is intimately linked to our sense of identity and where we believe we belong in the world.
People are more likely to remember knowledge that is connected to their experiences better than knowledge that they connect to other things. The more that information is implicated with a person, the more likely this information will be encoded and recalled. The rate that information about a person is recalled is faster and more accurate than information that is not involved with that person. If you were to give someone a scenario, they will usually try to relate that with an incident in their life that was similar making this information more likely to be encoded (Bower & Gilligan, 1979, p. 420). If you were to tell someone, for example, how insomnia is developed and the characteristics of it the person listening can connect it to their own personal experience with insomnia. This would become a more powerful encoding method compared to someone that was not able to connect insomnia to their own life. So, if someone thought of how they were so stressed out about exams, that they were not able to sleep for more than an hour a night; this would connect their experience to the topic of insomnia making it easier to remember the information than if someone that has not experienced insomnia. The same thing goes for the type of encoding someone does and the way the information gets stored. So, for example if someone was trying to remember the word house from a list of words, if the person connects it with their own home, they would be able to remember the word better than if they