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How does PCOS cause diabetes?
Before we decide that PCO causes diabetes or not it is important to understand the normal physiology. Usually a single egg starts forming in one of the ovaries, grows to the size of 18-22 mm in a span of 14 days (beginning from D1 of periods). Usually on D14 it comes out of its shell reaches the tube, waits there for its male counterpart ‘sperm’ for 24 hours. If it meets its male counterpart it results in pregnancy, if it doesn’t then after 14 days, the nest or the endometrium prepared by the womb for the baby sheds off which we see in form of monthly periods or menstruation. Usually the second half of cycle i.e. luteal phase is constant 14 days; there is variability in the egg formation and release time.
In
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unwanted hair growth on body or HIRUTISM. Also the glucose intolerance predisposes to diabetic mellitus, increased cholesterol or abnormal lipid profile.
To put it briefly the common symptoms are:
• Absent or irregular periods
• Followed by very heavy or prolonged periods
• Hirutism (unwanted hair growth)
• Weight gain (both causative and effect)
Signs:
• PCO ovaries on USG
• Abnormal LH/FSH ratios
• Increase in serum androgens especially testosterone
• Impaired glucose tolerance
• Abnormal lipid profile
Comorbidities:
• Infertility (inability or difficulty in conception)
• Pregnancy impliciations (gestational diabetes, preterm delivery, preeclampsia especially in obese)
• Obesity
• Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus
• Cardiovascular diseases (especially in the presence of additional risk factors like cigarette smoking, hypertension, dyslipidemia, family history)
• Depression
Treatment: Since it is a lifestyle disease enclosing far broader spectrum of diseases and not only irregular periods, impact of the diseases process continues far beyond menopause. As roots of all lifestyle disease set in adolescence so does PCO. There is a need for global change where we need to:
• Create awareness among adolescent girls regarding the epidemic of PCO.
• Lifestyle modification in the form of dietary regulation. Avoid junk food as far as possible; it makes your body junkyard.
• Regular exercise: household work tires whereas exercises energises. So the two
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